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CLARK'S " Introduction to Heraldry " has now been in 
existence for upwards of eighty years, and gone through 
seventeen editions. In presenting the eighteenth 
to the Public, it is only necessary to say, that in 
order to secure a continuance of such popularity, the 
book has undergone complete revision ; and by the 
omission of some exploded theories, and the correction 
of a few erroneous opinions, been rendered, it is hoped, 
a still more trustworthy Hand-book to an Art as useful 
as it is ornamental to a Science, the real value of 
which is daily becoming more apparent in this age of 

progress and critical inquiry. 

J. R. P. 











ARMS OF A BACHELOR ....... 59 

ARMS OF A BISHOP ....... 60 

ARMS OF A BARONET ....... 61 




ARMS, CANTING ........ 9 






A COMMONER ........ 60 


ARMS OF A MAID ........ 50 




vi Contents. 


ARMS ROYAL . - . 222 


ARMS OF A "WIDOW ... ... 58 



BADGES ......... 65 


BARONS -229 

BATH, ORDER OF THE ....... 240 

BISHOPS ......... 228 

BLAZONING, RULES OF . . . . . . .31 





BLAZONING OF FISHES . . . . . . .35 




BORDERS . . . . . . . . .17 

CHARGES ......... 20 


COLLEGE OF ARMS ....... 272 

COLOURS . . . . . . . . .11 


CREST . . . .65 


CROSSES . . . . . . . . .19 


DUKE .......... 223 

EARL. 226 

EARL MARSHAL ........ 269 





FURS .......... 12 

GARTER K1NG-OF-ARMS ...... 236, 272 

GARTER, ORDER OF THE ...... 232 

Contents. vii 



GENTLEMAN AT ARMS . . ... . . . 278 


GROOM OF THE STOLE ....... 277 



HELMETS . . . . . . . . .62 





KING 213 









LORD HIGH STEWARD . . ... . . . 263 

LORD ALMONER ..... 278 



LORD PRIVY SEAL ....... 265 


LYON KING-OF-ARMS . ' . . . 273 

MANTLING ......... 63 

MARQUIS ......... 225 

MARSHALLING ........ 56 


MASTER OF THE HORSE ....... 277 

MOTTO ......... 66 




PRECEDENCY ...... 255 





viii Contents. 




PUESUIVANTS ........ 272 

QUEEN 217 


EOYAL TITLES ........ 219 

RULES OF BLAZONING . . . . . . .31 





SUBOEDIN ABIES . . . . . . . .16 

SUPPOETEES ......... 66 

THISTLE, OEDEE OF THE . . . . . .242 

TINCTUEES AND FUES . . . . . . .11 


ULSTEE KING-OF-ARHS ... ... 273 



YEOMAN . 252 


EntroJttutton to 

TTEEALPIC devices, truly so called, make their first 
XI appearance in Europe in the middle of the twelfth 
century; and about one hundred years later we find 
Heraldry has become a science in high repute, without 
our being able to trace its intermediate progress, or 
discover the names of those who first laid down its 
laws, or subsequently promulgated them. The earliest 
Heraldic document, of which even a copy has come 
down to us, is a roll of arms, that is to say, a catalogue 
of the armorial bearings of the King of England, and 
the principal barons, knights, &c., in this country in 
the reign of Henry III., and, from internal evidence, 
supposed to have been originally compiled between the 
years 1240-1245. This transcript was made by Glover, 
Somerset Herald, in 1586, and is preserved in the 
College of Arms. Other rolls are to be found, both 
there and in the British Museum, of nearly the same 
date, but none earlier, and no work explanatory of the 
science has been yet discovered of a period anterior to 


2 Introduction to Heraldry. 

the reign of Edward III. It is not. therefore, our 
intention to notice any of the various theories, either 
ancient or modern, which have been advanced to 
account for the origin of coat-armour, as they are 
purely speculative the most rational resting on no 
contemporary authority. We shall confine ourselves to 
the fact that in the reign of Henry III. armorial 
ensigns had become hereditary, marks of cadency dis- 
tinguished the various members of a family, and the 
majority of the present Heraldic terms were already 
in existence. 


at that period was to distinguish persons and property, 
and record descent and alliance, and no modern in- 
vention has yet been found to supersede it. For this 
reason alone, as we have remarked elsewhere, of all 
ancient usages it is one of the least likely to become 
obsolete. Hundreds of persons may be entitled to the 
same initials, may possess precisely the same name; 
but only the members of a particular family can law- 
fully bear certain armorial ensigns, and the various 
branches of that family have their separate differences 
to distinguish one from the other. After the lapse of 
centuries, the date of a building, or the name of its 
founder or ancient possessor, may be ascertained at the 
present day, through the accidental preservation of a 
sculptured coat of arms or heraldic encaustic tile ; and 
the careful study of early rolls of arms, enables us to 
discover matrimonial alliances and family connexions, 
of which no written record has been found, and thereby 
not only to complete the very imperfect genealogies of 

Introduction to Heraldry. 3 

many of the bravest and wisest of our English nobility 
and gentry, but also to account for sundry acts, both 
public and private, the motives for which have been 
misunderstood, or altogether unknown to the biographer 
or the historian. 
A few words on 


In the middle ages, it began by an unhappy ambition 
in the heralds to exalt their science in the eyes of the 
commonalty ; and a less excusable desire to pander to 
the vanity of those who had inherited ancient armorial 
devices. On charges simple enough at the time they 
were assumed, the most preposterous stories were 
founded. The wildest legends, the most unsupported 
assertions were adopted and exaggerated, if they could 
by any possibility be connected with the arms on the 
shield, or the badge on the standard, till the characters, 
which were originally so clear that those who ran 
might read, were mystified and misrepresented beyond 
our power to decipher them by the light which has 
been left us. 

With the increase of education, the absurdities be- 
came more and more apparent, and at length the study 
of Heraldry was pretty nearly abandoned as a silly and 
useless pursuit. The critical spirit of archaeology has, 
within the last twenty years, done much to correct the 
prejudice ; and the curious and important information to 
be derived from the study of armorial devices is rapidly 
becoming appreciated by even the general public. 

The abuse of arms in modern days is constantly ex- 
hibited in the crests engraved on the plate and seals, 
or stamped on the note-paper, of thousands of persons 

4 Introduction to Heraldry. 

utterly unentitled, by ancient descent or modern grant, 
to such insignia. 

An erroneous impression, carefully fostered by cer- 
tain advertising seal-engravers, exists amongst the 
public, that all persons possessing the same name have 
a right to bear the same arms. Mr. Jones considers 
himself justified in bearing the crest of Viscount Rane- 
lagh ; Mr. Brown that of the Marquis of Sligo. Mr. 
Smith appropriates to himself the coat of Lord Car- 
rington, and Mr. Robinson sees no just cause or im- 
pediment to prevent his displaying that of Earl de 
Grey and Ripon. 

There are instances in which, not content with the 
paternal coat of their noble namesake, persons have also 
assumed the quarterings they have found marshalled 
with it, and we remember having seen a baronet's 
arms appropriated thus wholesale, including the distin- 
guishing mark of his rank, the badge of Ulster ! Surely 
even those who affect the greatest contempt for Heraldry, 
will admit that if arms are to be borne at all, it should 
be according to the laws of arms ; and that if the dis- 
play of them be an empty vanity, it is a less creditable 
vanity to parade as our own those which belong of 
right to others. 

The most useful purpose of Heraldry is also defeated 
by this silly practice, as identification of family or 
property is impossible under such circumstances. Nor 
is it scarcely possible for the more scrupulous, who 
design coats or crests for themselves, to avoid inter- 
fering, more or less, with recorded arms, either ancient 
or modern, and thus equally, though more innocently, 
contributing to the confusion. 

Another abuse of arms is the common custom of 

Introduction to Heraldry. 5 

wives having their note-paper stamped with the crests 
appertaining to, or assumed by, their husbands. No 
lady is entitled to a crest (see under CRESTS), and 
the display of one by a female of any rank is an 


Arms are usually divided by modern authorities into 
eleven classes. 

1. Arms of Dominion. 

2. Arms of Pretension. 

3. Arms of Community. 

4. Arms of Assumption. 

5. Arms of Patronage. 

6. Arms of Succession. 

7. Arms of Alliance. 

8. Arms of Adoption. 

9. Arms Paternal and Here- 

10. Arms of Concession. 

11. Canting or Allusive Arms. 

These may fairly be reduced to nine, and even less, 
as we shall show in our description of them. 


are those which emperors and kings constantly bear, 
and which, being annexed to their territories, are 
stamped on their coins, and displayed on their colours, 
standards, banners, coaches, seals, &c. 


are those of kingdoms, provinces, or territories to which 
a prince or lord pretends to have some claim, and which 
he therefore adds to his own arms, although the land 
be possessed by some other prince or lord. Thus, the 
kings of England quartered the arms of France with 
those of England from the year 1330 (when Edward 
III. laid claim to that kingdom, as son to Isabella, 
sister of Charles the Handsome, who died without 
issue) till the year 1801, although at the latter date all 

6 Introduction to Heraldry. 

pretensions to France on the part of England had long 
ceased. On the union of this kingdom with Ireland, 
the arms of France were first omitted, and the ensign 
of Ireland inserted in their stead. In like manner 
Spain quarters the arms of Portugal and Jerusalem; 
and Denmark those of Sweden. 


are those of bishoprics, cities, universities, academies, 
societies, companies, and other bodies corporate. 


In the days of chivalry, according to Sir John Feme, 
it was considered lawful that the victor, upon making 
captive any gentleman of higher degree than him- 
self, might assume the shield of arms of his prisoner; 
and the acquiring of coat-armour by such feats of 
valour was esteemed highly honourable. As this prac- 
tice has long been disused, if indeed it ever existed, 
these so-called arms of assumption may be struck out 
of the list. 


are, in one sense, such as governors of provinces, lords 
of manors, patrons of benefices, add to their family 
arms, as a token of their rights and jurisdiction ; in 
another, they are part of the arms of such lords, 
assumed by and added to the paternal arms of persons 
holding lands in fee under them. Thus, as the earls 
of Chester bore garbs, many gentlemen of the county 
bore the same ensign ; and numerous instances of this 
kind of bearing may still be adduced in England, 
Scotland, and, indeed, in most parts of Europe. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 1 


are those taken up by such as inherit certain lands, 
manors, &c., either by will, entail, or donation ; and which 
they bear instead of, or quarter with, their own arms. 


are such as, when heiresses marry into families, are 
taken up by their issue, to show their descent pater- 
nal and maternal ; and by this means the memory of 
many ancient and noble families, extinct in the male 
line, is preserved and conveyed to posterity; which 
is one of the principal reasons of marshalling several 
coats, pertaining to distict families in one shield, 


Already described as arms of succession. They are 
called " of adoption " because the last of a family may by 
will adopt a stranger to possess his name, estate, and 
arms, and thereby continue the name and coat of his 
family in the world after his decease. The present 
custom for persons adopted, is to apply to the Crown 
for a Eoyal license to empower them to fulfil the will 
of the testator, or to the Parliament for an Act. 


are such as are transmitted from the first possessor 
to his son, grandson, great-grandson, &c. In such 
case they are arms of a perfect and complete nobility, 
begun in the grandfather, or great-grandfather (as 
heralds say), growing in the son, complete in the 
grandson, or rather great-grandson; from which rises 
the distinction of gentleman of blood in the grandson, 
and, in the great-grandson, gentleman of ancestry. 

8 Introduction to Heraldry. 


are augmentations granted by the sovereign, of part 
of his ensigns or regalia, to such persons as he pleaseth 
to honour therewith. Henry VIII. honoured the arms 
of Thomas Manners (whom he created Earl of Kut- 
land) with an augmentation, on account of his being 
descended from a sister of King Edward IV. His 
paternal arms were, or, two bars azure, a chief gules. 
The augmentations were, the chief quarterly, azure and 
gules ; on the first, two fleurs de Us in fess, or ; on the 
second, a lion passant gardant. See Plate XI. n. 3. The 
same monarch also granted, as an augmentation of 
honour, to Lady Jane Seymour, a pile gulss, charged with 
three lions passant gardant, or, to be marshalled with 
her paternal coat ; and many similar instances might 
be adduced of our sovereigns giving special proof of 
their favour by granting arms of concession by their 
royal warrant, recorded in the College of Arms. But 
these augmentations did not always consist of part of 
the royal bearings. Thus, the arms granted in 1692 to 
Sir Cloudesley Shovel were gules, a chevron ermine, in 
chief two crescents argent, in base afleur de Us or; to denote 
three victories gained by him, two over the Turks, and 
one over the French : Lord Heathfield was permitted to 
assume a fortress, to commemorate his gallant defence 
of Gibraltar. The arms of many other of our heroes, 
naval and military, as Nelson, Collingwood, Wel- 
lington, may also be referred to, as justly bearing these 
augmentations of honour (called by the French heralds 
armes de concession), although we cannot too strongly 
express our disapprobation of the wretched taste and 
unheraldic character of the augmentations themselves. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 9 


Canting or allusive arms are coats of arms whose 
figures allude to the names, professions, &c., of the 
bearer ; as a trevet, for Trevet ; three herrings, for 
Herring; a camel, for Camel; three covered cups, for 
Butler ; a pine tree, for Pine ; three arches, for Arches ; 
three harrows, for Harrow, &c. Such arms have been 
ignorantly described by some writers as of an inferior 
order, whereas there can scarcely be a greater proof of 
their antiquity and highly honourable character. 

We will now proceed to the study of the points of 
the escutcheon, metals, colours, furs, partition lines, ordi- 
naries, charges, and distinctions of houses. 

It is highly necessary, before a person attempt to 
blazon a coat of arms, that he should be well acquainted 
with the terms and rules laid down in the following 
tables, which may be acquired by a little practice and 


The shield or escutcheon (from the Latin word 
scutum, a hide, of which shields are supposed to have 
been originally made,) represents the defensive imple- 
ment of that name used in war, and on which armorial 
ensigns were originally borne. The ground or surface 
of it is called the field, and here are depicted the figures 
which make up the coat of arms. 

The field of the escutcheon is divided into nine 
integral parts, used to mark the position of the bear- 
ings. They are termed the points of the escutcheon, 
and are clearly illustrated in Table I. 

It should be particularly observed, that the side of 
the escutcheon which is opposite to the left hand of 

10 Introduction to Heraldry. 

the person looking at it is the dexter or right side 
of the escutcheon, and that opposite the right hand 
the sinister or left side. Great care should also be 
taken to understand the points; for the very same 
figures placed differently constitute distinct and dif- 
ferent arms. 



The dexter, 


side of the 





T > 

The sinister, 


side of the 

A Dexter chief. 
B Middle chief. 
C Sinister chief. 
D Honour point. 
E Fess point. 
F Nombril point. 
G Dexter base. 
H Middle base. 
I Sinister base. 

Note. The chief is the top or chief part of the escutcheon, 
marked A, B, C ; the base is the lower part of the escutcheon, 
marked G, H, I. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 11 



THE tinctures or colours generally used in the 
science of heraldry are red, blue, black, green, and 
purple ; termed in this science gules, azure, sable, vert, 
and purpure. Yellow and white, termed or and argent, 
are metals : 


Or .... Gold, or yellow. 

Argent . . . Silver, or white. 

Gules . . . Bed 

Azure . . . Blue. 

Sable . . . Black. 

Vert. . . . Green. 

Purpure. . . Purple. 

Colours and metals, when engraved, are known by 
dots and lines ; as OR, the metal gold, is known by 
dots ; ARGENT, which signifies white, or the white metal 
silver, is always left plain; GULES, is expressed by 
lines perpendicular from top to bottom; AZURE, by 
horizontal lines from side to side; SABLE, by hori- 
zontal and perpendicular lines crossing each other ; 
VERT, by diagonal lines from right to left ; PURPURE, by 
diagonal lines from left to right. See the examples 
Table II (Plate II.) S. Petrasancta, an Italian herald, 
about two centuries ago, is said to have been the first 
who thought of expressing the tinctures by lines and 

English heralds admit of two other colours, namely, 
orange, called tenne, and blood-colour, called sanguine ; 

12 Introduction to Heraldry. 

though their is no instance of their occurrence in 
British bearings. If used, tenne should be expressed by 
diagonal lines from left to right, crossed by horizontal 
lines ; and sanguine, by lines crossing each other 
diagonally from left to right and from right to left. 


Furs are not only used for the linings of robes and 
garments of state, the linings of the mantle, and other 
ornaments of the shield, but also in the coat-armours 
themselves. They originally were limited to ermine and 
vair, but later heralds have added ermines, erminois, 
erminites, pean, vair-en-point, counter-vair, potent-counter - 
potent. All these may be seen under each head in the 
Dictionary of Terms; but for illustration we have 
selected only the most common in use : viz., 

Ermine, Ermines, Erminois, 

Vair, Counter-vair, Potent. 

ERMINE is described by sable spots on a white field, 
the tail terminating in three hairs : see Table II., n. 1 . 

ERMINES is a field black, with white spots, n. 2. 

ERMINOIS is a field gold, with black spots, n. 3. 

VAIR is white and blue, represented by figures of 
small escutcheons, ranged in a line, so that the lose 
argent is opposite to the base azure, n. 4. 

COUNTER-VAIR is when escutcheons of the same 
colour are placed. base against base and point against 
point, n. 5. 

POTENT-COUNTER-POTENT is a field covered with figures 
like crutch-heads, termed potents counter placed, n. 6, 
potent being the old word for a crutch. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 13 



SHIELDS are divided by lines, called partition lines, 
which are distinguished by different names, according 
to their different forms. These lines are either straight 
or curved. The straight lines are perpendicular, hori- 
zontal, diagonal dexter, and diagonal sinister; termed 
per pale, per fess, per bend, &c., as explained below. 
The shield is said to be party, or divided, by these 
lines ; as thus: 

PARTY PER PALE, or impaled is the field divided by 
a perpendicular line, as PI. in., n. 1. 

PARTY PER BEND is a field divided by a diagonal 
line from the dexter chief to the sinister base, as n. 2. 

PARTY PER BEND Sinister is precisely the reverse of 
the above ; the partition line running from the sinister 
chief to the dexter base, instead of from the dexter to 
the sinister. 

PARTY PER FESS is a field equally divided by a hori- 
zontal line, as n. 3. 

PARTY PER CHEVRON is a field divided by such a 
line as helps to make the chevron, as n. 4. 

PARTY PER CROSS, or quarterly, is a field divided by 
two lines, the one perpendicular, the other horizontal, 
crossing each other in the centre of the field, as n. 5. 

PARTY PER SALTIRE, is a field divided by two diago- 
nal lines, dexter and sinister, crossing each other in the 
centre of the field, as n. 6. 

14 Introduction to Heraldry. 

The curved lines of partition are the engrailed, in- 
vecked, wavy or undee, nebule, embattled, raguly, indented, 
dancette, and dove-tail. See examples conspicuously 
engraved in PL m. 



ORDINARIES are certain charges which, by their ordinary 
and frequent use in a shield of arms, are become most 
essential to the science of Heraldry : viz., the chief, pale, 
bend, bend sinister, fess, bar, chevron, cross, and saltire ; 
with their diminutives or subordinaries, the fillet, pallet, 
endorse, garter, cost, ribbon, baton, closet, &c., as in PI. iv. 

THE CHIEF is formed by a horizontal line, and con- 
tains in depth the third of the field, as n. 1. Its diminu- 
tive is termed a, fillet, and does not exceed one-fourth of 
the chief. The line may be indented, wavy, &c. ; but 
this must be noticed in the blazonry. 

The PALE consists of two perpendicular lines, drawn 
from the top to the base of the shield, and occupying 
one-third of its centre, as n. 2. 

The pale has two diminutives the half of the pale is 
called a pallet, as n. 3 ; and the half of the pallet is 
called an endorse, as n. 4. 

The BEND is formed by two parallel lines, drawn 
from the dexter chief to the sinister base, as n. 5. It 
contains a fifth part of the shield in breadth, if un- 
charged, and a third part if charged. 

The bend has four diminutives, the bendlet, n. 6 ; the 
garter, n. 7 ; the cost (called when in pairs cottices), n. 8 ; 

Introduction to Heraldry. 15 

and ribbon, which is always couped, or cut off straight, 
at the ends, n. 9. 

The BEND SINISTER, which passes diagonally from 
the sinister chief to the dexter base of the shield, as n. 
10. The Bend Sinister has two diminutives ; the scarp, 
which is half the bend, as n. 11 ; and the baton, which 
is half of the scarp, and couped at the ends, as n. 12. 

The FESS is formed by two horizontal lines across 
the shield : it occupies the third part of the field, and 
is always confined to the centre, as n. 13. 

The BAR is formed of two horizontal lines, and con- 
tains the fifth part of the field, as n. 14. The Bar is 
distinguished from the Fess, by being never borne 
single : it has two diminutives ; the closet, which is 
half the bar, n. 15 ; and the barrulet, which is half the 
closet, n. 16. 

The CHEVRON is formed of two lines placed in the 
form of a pyramid, like two rafters of a house joined 
together, and descending in form of a pair of com- 
passes to the extremities of the shield, n. 17. The 
Chevron has two diminutives ; the chevronel, which is 
half the chevron, n. 18 ; and the couple-close, which is 
half the chevronel, n. 19. 

The CROSS. The Cross is formed by the meeting of 
two perpendicular with two horizontal lines near the 
fees point, where they make four right angles : the lines 
are not drawn throughout, but, discontinued the breadth 
of the cross, n. 20. 

The SALTIRE is formed by the bend-dexter and 
bend-sinister crossing each other at right angles, n. 21. 
The PILE is composed of two lines which form a long 
wedge, n. 22. 

The QUARTER is formed of two lines, one perpen- 

16 Introduction to Heraldry. 

dicular, the other horizontal, taking up one-fourth of 
the field, and is always placed in the chief, n. 23. 

The CANTON is a square figure like the quarter, but 
possessing only the third part of the chief, n. 24. 



A GYRON is a triangular figure, composed of two lines, 
one diagonally from the dexter chief angle to the centre 
of the shield ; the other drawn horizontally from the 
dexter side of the shield, and meeting the other line in 
the centre of the field, as n. 1. 

FLANCHES are formed by two circular lines, and are 
always borne double, as n. 2. 

The LABEL, though used as a distinction of houses, 
is placed by Holme as an ordinary, from its being 
variously borne and charged, n. 3. 

The ORLE is an inner border of the same shape as 
the escutcheon, but does not touch the extremities of 
the shield, the field being seen within and round it on 
both sides, as n. 4. 

The TRESSURE is a diminutive of the Orle, half its 
breadth, and is generally borne flory and couuter-flory, 
n. 5. 

The FRET is composed of six pieces, two of which 
form a scdtire, and the other four a mascle, which is 
placed in the centre. The saltire pieces must be inter- 
laced over and under the pieces that form the mascle, 
as n. 6. 

The INESOUTCHEON is a small escutcheon borne 

Introduction to Heraldry. 17 

within the shield, in the middle of a coat, or in chief. 
If there be more than one in a coat, they are usually 
called escutcheons, n. 7. 

The CHAPLET is always composed of four roses only, 
all the other parts being leaves, n. 8. 

A BORDER or Bordure is a bearing that goes all round 
and parallel to the boundary of the shield in form of a 
hem, and contains the fifth part of the field, n. 9. When a 
border is plain, as in the example, it need not be termed 
plain, as it is always understood so in the science ; viz., 
argent, a border azure ; but if the border be engrailed, 
indented, &c., you must express it : viz., argent, a border 
engrailed azure. See the two examples, n. 10 and 11. 
In blazon, borders always give place to the chief, 
the quarter, and the canton ; as, for example, argent, a 
border gules, a chief azure ; therefore, the chief is placed 
over the border, see PI. xxxix., n. 2. So that in coats 
charged with either a chief, quarter, or canton, the 
border goes round the field until it touches them, and 
there finishes, see PI. xxxix., n. 3 ; but in respect to all 
other ordinaries, the border passes over them, PI. xxxix., 
n. 4. 

In a coat which has a border impaled with another, 
be it either the man's or the woman's, the border must 
terminate at the impaled line, see PI. xxxix., n. 5. This 
method is also to be observed in impaling a coat that 
has either a single or double tressure, as PL xxxix., n. 6. 

A BORDER ENGRAILED. This border is bounded by 
small semicircles, the points of which enter the field, as 
n. 10. 

A BORDER INDENTED is the same in shape as the 
partition line indented, n. 11. 

A BORDER QUARTERLY is a border divided into four 


18 Introduction to Heraldry. 

equal parts by a perpendicular and horizontal line, as 
n. 12. 

A BORDER GOBONY or company is a border composed 
of one row of squares (of two colours), and no more, as 
n. 13. 

A BORDER COUNTER-COMPONY is a border composed 
of two rows of squares, as n. 14. 

A BORDER CHECKY is a border composed of three 
rows of squares, as n. 15. 

A BORDER VAIR. Vair is represented by the figures 
of little escutcheons reversed, ranged in a line so 
that the base argent is opposite to the base azure, as 
n. 16. 

PALY is a field divided into four, six, or more (even 
number of) parts, by perpendicular lines, consisting of 
two colours ; the first beginning with metal, and the last 
consisting of colour, as n. 17. 

BENDY is a field divided into four, six, or more (equal) 
parts diagonally, from the dexter to the sinister, or 
from sinister to dexter, and consisting of two colours, 
as n. 18. 

BARRY is a field divided by horizontal lines, into four, 
six, or more (equal) parts, and consisting of two tinc- 
tures, as n. 19. 

BARRY PILY of eight pieces or and gules, as n. 20. 

In paly, bendy, and barry, the number of divisions is 
always even, and to be specified ; as four, six, eight, ten, 
or twelve, viz., Paly of six, barry of six, bendy of six 
barry pily of eight, or and gules. See the examples, 

LOZENGY is a field or bearing covered with lozenges 
of different tinctures alternately, as lozengy, argent and 
azure, n. 21. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 19 

CHECKY is a field or bearing covered with small 
squares of different tinctures alternately, as n. 22. 
When on ordinaries, it always consists of three or more 

GYRONNY is a field divided into six, eight, ten, or 
twelve triangular parts, of two or more different tinc- 
tures, and the points all meeting in the centre of the 
field, as n. '23. 

FRETTY consists of eight, ten, or more pieces, each 
passing to the extremity of the shield, and interlacing 
each other, as n. 24. 



A CROSS. The Cross is one of the ordinaries before 
mentioned. It is borne indented, engrailed, &c., as 
well as plain ; but when plain, as the example, n. 1, a 
cross only is mentioned, which is understood to be plain. 

A CROSS MOLINE signifies a cross which turns round 
both ways at the extremities, as n. 2. 

A CROSS FLORY. This signifies the ends of the cross 
to terminate in fleurs-de-lis, as n. 3. 

A CROSS PATONCE. This cross terminates like the 
bottom of the fleurs-de-lis, as n. 4. 

A CROSS POTENT. This cross terminates like the 
head of a crutch, which anciently was called a potent , 
as n. 5. 

A CROSS PATTEE, or spread out, is one which is 
small in the centre, and so goes on widening to the 
ends, which are very broad, as n. 6. 

A CROSS AVELANE, so termed from its parts re- 

20 Introduction to Heraldry. 

sembling the nux avellance, filbert, or hazel-nut, as 
n. 7. 

A CROSS BOTONNE, or budded, is so termed because 
its extremities resemble buds of flowers. The French, 
with greater propriety, call it croix trejflee, on account of 
its nearer resemblance to the trefoil ; n. 8. 

A CROSS POMMEE signifies a cross with a ball at each 
end ; from pomme, an apple. See n. 9. 

A CROSS CROSLET is a cross crossed again at the 
extremities, at a small distance from each of the ends, 
as n. 10. 

A CROSS CROSLET FITCHY. So termed when the 
under-limb of the cross ends in a sharp point, as 
n. 11. 

A CROSS OF FOUR PHEONS. That is, four Pheons in 
Cross, their points all meeting in the centre, as n. 12. 

Spots in Cross, their tops meeting in the centre point, 
as n. 13. 

A CROSS MILRINE. So termed as its form is like 
the mill-ink, which carries the millstone, and is per- 
forated as that is. See n. 14, 15. 

A CROSS KAYONNANT is a cross from the angles 6f 
which issue rays, as n. 16. 


CHARGES are any figures whatever borne in an 

A LOZENGE. The shape is the same with that of a 
pane of glass in old casements, as n. 17. In this form 
the arms of maidens and widows should be borne. The 
true proportion of the Lozenge is to have its width 
three-fourths of its height. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 21 

A FUSIL. The Fusil differs from the Lozenge, being 
longer and more acute. See the difference in n. 17 and 
18. Note. If a Fusil is four inches in height, it must 
be but one inch and three-quarters in width, and so in 
proportion to any other height. 

The MASCLE is formed like the Lozenge, but is 
exactly square, and the centre is perforated, as example, 
n. 19. 

A WATER BOUGET was a vessel anciently used by 
soldiers for carrying water in long marches, n. 20.* 

A TREFOIL, or three-leaved grass, as n. 21. 

A QUATREFOIL, or four-leaved grass, as n. 22. 

A GINQUEFOIL, or five-leaved grass. This charge is 
very frequent in armoury, n. 23. 

A ROSE in Heraldry is always represented full-blown, 
with its leaves expanded, seeded in the middle, with 
five green barbs, as n. 24. 


CHARGES (continued). 

A MULLET, n. 1. Some have confounded stars and 
mullets together, which is easily rectified, by allowing 
mullets to consist of five points, and stars to be of six, 
eight, or more points. 

An ESTOILE, or star of six waved points. See n. 2. 

A GAL-TRAP ; an instrument of iron composed of 
four points, so that whichever way it lies on the 

* There are various forms of it ; the one here referred to, 
though strictly heraldic, bearing little resemblance to the article 
it professes to represent. 

22 Introduction to Heraldry. 

ground, one point is always upwards ; they were used to 
impede the enemy's cavalry in passing fords, morasses, 
&c. See n. 3. 

A PHEON is the iron part of a dart with a barbed 
head, n. 4. 

An ANNULET, or Eing. See n. 5. 

A CRESCENT, or Half Moon, has the horns turned 
upwards. See n. 6. 

An INCRESCENT is a Half Moon with the horns 
turned to the dexter side. See n. 7. 

A DECRESCENT is a Half Moon with the horns turned 
to the sinister side. See n. 8. 

A CHESS-ROOK, a piece used in the game of chess, as 
n. 9. 

A FOUNTAIN is drawn as a roundle barry wavy of six, 
Argent and Azure, as n. 10. 

A REST. This figure by some is termed a rest for a 
horseman's lance ; others describe it as a musical instru- 
ment called a clarion, n. 11. 

A PORTCULLIS ; used in fortifying the gateways of a 
city, town, or castle, as n. 12. 

A MANCHE; an old-fashioned sleeve of the 12th 
century, with long cuff dependant, as n.' 13. This 
charge is represented in forms as various as that of the 

A GARB signifies a sheaf of any kind of grain, as 
n. 14. If it be a sheaf of wheat, it is sufficient to 
say a garb ; but if of any other grain, it must be ex- 

A MARTLET ; a bird shaped like a martin, but repre- 
sented without legs, as n. 15. 

BAR-GEMEL signifies two bars placed near and 
parallel to each other, as n. 16. Note. Gemels are 

Introduction to Heraldry. 23 

much narrower than bars, and are always borne in 

A CATHERINE-WHEEL ; named from St. Catherine, 
whose limbs were broken in pieces by its iron teeth, 
n. 17. 

An ESCARBUNCLE ; supposed to represent the rays of a 
precious stone (the carbuncle), and drawn by the ancient 
heralds, as n. 18. It is composed of an annulet in the 
centre, from which issue eight or more sceptres. 

A PELICAN. The Pelican in heraldry is generally 
represented with her wings indorsed, her neck em- 
bowed, and pecking at her breast, as n. 19. When in 
her nest, feeding her young, it is termed in blazon, a 
Pelican in her piety. 

A PHOENIX is an imaginary bird, like an eagle in 
shape, and in heraldry is always represented in flames, 
so that seldom more of the bird is seen than what is in 
the example, n. 20. 

An ANTELOPE ; a well-known slender-limbed animal 
of the deer kind, with two straight taper horns : it is 
drawn according to nature, as n. 21. 

AN HERALDIC ANTELOPE. This imaginary animal is 
represented with a body like a stag, with a unicorn's 
tail, a tusk issuing from the tip of the nose, a row of 
tufts down the back part of the neck, and the like tufts 
on his tail, chest, and thighs, as n. 22. 

A COCKATRICE is also a chimerical figure ; its wings, 
beak, legs, comb, wattles, and spurs, partake of the 
fowl, and its body and tail of the dragon, as n. 23. 

A WYVERN. This figure also is of heraldic crea- 
tion : it differs from the cockatrice in its head, and is 
without a comb, wattles, or spurs, as n. 24, and is dis- 
tinguished from the dragon by only having two legs. 

24 Introduction to Heraldry. 


CHAEGBS (continued'). 

A DRAGON is an imaginary beast with four legs, 
drawn by heralds as the example, n. 1. 

A HARPY is a poetical monster, composed of the 
head and breasts of a woman, joined to the body of a 
vulture, as n. 2. 

An HERALDIC TIGER, so termed from being different 
from the tiger of nature, owes its origin to the ancients, 
who represented it like the example, n. 3. 

BILLETS are oblong squares, and are generally sup- 
posed to be letters made up in the form of the example, 
, n. 4, or blocks of wood, as there is an instance of a 
Billet raguly in the coat of Billettes and of Billety in 
that of de la Plaunch. 

A CANNET ; a term for a duck without beak or feet, 
as n. 5. This is only used in foreign arms. 

An ALLERION is an eagle displayed, without beak or 
feet, as n. 6. 

A WELK ; the name of a shell fish. See n. 7. 

GUTTES signify drops of anything liquid, and are 
represented as n. 8. As these drops differ in colour, 
they receive different terms. Being much used in 
English heraldry, it is necessary to introduce them ; 
p Or, 1 13 ( Guttes d'or, 1 J3 f Drops of gold, 

Argent, S Guttes d'eau, Drops of water, 

Vert, ! -2 J Guttes d 'olive, I 'S J D r P s f oil f olive, 

Azure, ', 2 j Guttes de larmes, | <s ^ j Drops of tears, 

Sable, I >, | Guttes de poix, g | Drops of pitch, 

( Gules, J J ( Guttes de sang, j | ^ Drops of blood. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 25 

The French heralds use none of the above variations, 
but say gutte (z. e., dropped) of such a colour. 

KOUNDLES are round figures ; if of metal, as the 
bezant and plate, they are to be flat ; if of colour, they 
are drawn globular, and termed according to the colour 
or metal they are composed of. See PI. vni., n. 9 to 
15 ; viz. 

fOr, \ ^ f Bezants, 

Argent, | I Plates, 

Vert, g I Pommes, 

Azure, ^ "o ^ Hurts, 



% | Torteaux 
53 ^Golpes. 

If there be two, three, or more in a coat, counter- 
changed, being of any colour or metal, they retain the 
name of roundle. Note. Foreigners term the round 
figures, when of metal, bezants ; when of colour, tor- 
teaux; viz., Bezants (for, or d' argent, torteaux de gules, 
d'azure, de sable, &c. 


COUPED. A term for any charge in an escutcheon 
that is borne cut evenly off, as the example ; viz., A 
Lion's Head Couped, n. 16. 

ERASED. A term for anything torn or plucked off 
from the part to which nature had fixed it. The part 
torn off must be drawn jagged, as the example ; viz., 
A Lion's Head Erased, n. 17. 

DEMI signifies the half of anything ; viz., A Demi- 
Lion, n. 18. 

DORMANT, or sleeping ; viz., A Lion dormant, with its 
head resting on its fore-paws, as n. 19. 

COUCHANT, lying or squatting on the ground, with 

26 Introduction to Heraldry. 

the head upright; viz., A Lion Couchant. See 
n. 20. 

SEJANT. A term for any beast sitting in the position 
of the example; viz., A Lion Sejant, n. 21. 

PASSANT. A term for any beast when in a walking 
position ; viz., A Lion Passant, n. 22. 

STATANT. A term for a beast standing, with all 
four legs on the ground, as n. 23. 


PASSANT-GARDANT. A term for a beast when walk- 
ing with his head affronte, or looking full-faced, as 
example, n. 1. 

RAMPANT. A term for lions, bears, tigers, &c., when 
standing erect on their hind legs. A Lion Rampant, 
n. 2. 

RAMPANT-GARDANT signifies a beast standing on his 
hind legs, looking full-faced, as example, A Lion Ram- 
pant-Gardant, n. 3. 

RAMPANT-REGARDANT. A term for a beast standing 
upon his hind legs, looking towards his tail ; viz., A 
Lion Rampant-Regardant, as n. 4. 

RAMPANT-COMBATANT. A term for beasts fighting, 
or rampant face to face, as the example, Two Lions 
Rampant-Combatant. See n. 5. 

SALIANT. A term for beasts of prey when leaping 
or springing forward, as the example, n. 6. 

ADDORSED signifies beasts, birds, or fish turned back 
to back, as the example, Two Lions Rampant Addorsed. 
See n. 7. 

COUNTER-PASSANT ; for two beasts, as lions, &c., 

Introduction to Heraldry. 27 

when walking different ways, the one to the dexter, the 
other to the sinister, as the example, n. 8. 

COUNTER-SALIANT. A term for two beasts when 
leaping different ways from each other, as the example, 
Two Foxes Counter-Saliant in Saltire, the dexter sur- 
mounted of the sinister, n. 9. 

COUNTER-TRIPPING. This term is given when two 
rams, deer, &c., as the example, are tripping, the one 
passing one way and the other another. See n. 10. 

SEJANT ADDORSED. A term for two animals sitting 
back to back, as the example, n. 11. 

PASSANT-EEGARDANT. A term for a beast when 
walking with its head looking behind, n. 12. 

AT GAZE. The stag, buck, or hind, when looking 
affronte, or full-faced, it is said to be at Gaze, n. 13. 
All other beasts, when in this attitude, are termed 

TRIPPING. A term which signifies a stag, antelope, 
or hind, &c., when walking, as n. 14. 

SPRINGING. This term is used for beasts of chase, in 
the same sense as Saliant is for beasts of prey, n. 15. 
This term is likewise used for fish when placed in 

COURANT. A term for stag, horse, or greyhound, or 
any other beast, represented running, as the example, 
n. 16. 

LODGED. This term is for stags, &c., when at rest, 
lying on the ground, n. 17. Beasts of chase are said 
to be lodged; beasts of prey, when lying down, are 
termed couchant. 

CABOSSED. This term is used to express the head of 
a stag or other animal drawn full-faced, and without 
any part of the neck being visible, n. 18. 

28 Introduction to Heraldry. 

CLOSE. This term is for the wings of birds (of 
flight) when they are down and close to the body, 
n. 19. But must not be used to the peacock, dung- 
hill-cock, nor to any others that are not addicted to 

RISING. A term for birds when in a position as if 
preparing to fly, as n. 20. 

DISPLAYED. The term is used for the wings of 
eagles, and all other birds, when they are expanded, 
as n. 21. 

VOLANT. Thus we term any bird that is represented 
flying, as n. 22. 

DEMI- VOL. A term for a single wing, n. 23. 

INDORSED. A term for wings when placed back to 
back, as n. 24. 


ERECT signifies anything perpendicularly elevated, as 
the example : viz., Two wings conjoined and erect ; 
that is, the points of the wings are upwards, n. 1. This 
charge is also called a VOL. 

INVERTED. This example is the reverse position of 
the former, the points of these being downwards : viz., 
Two wings conjoined and inverted, n. 2. Vide LURE. 

NAIANT. A term for fish when borne horizontally 
across the field as swimming, as n. 3. 

HAURIANT signifies the fish to be erect, or breathing, 
as the example, n. 4. 

RESPECTING. A term for fish, or birds, when 
placed upright, and apparently looking at each other, 
as n. 5. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 29 

NAIANT EMBOWED. This term is used for the dolphin, 
to signify the crookedness of his motion when swim- 
ming, as the example, n. 6. 

DEMI-LION PASSANT is one half of a lion in a walking 
position, as n. 7. 

DEMI FLEUR-DE-LIS is the half of a fleur-de-lis, as 
n. 8, also as PL vn., n. 24. 

ISSUANT, or issuing, signifies coming out ; as from 
the bottom of the chief in the example, n. 9, or from 
clouds as PI. xix., n. 23. 

EOUSANT signifies heavy birds, as if preparing to fly, 
with the wings indorsed, as n. 10. 

SLIPPED. A term for a flower, branch, or leaf, when 
plucked from the stock, and not cut off, n. 11. 

TIRRET. A modern term derived from the French, 
for manacles, or handcuffs, n. 12. 

The following twelve examples are introduced for 
the instruction of the learner, as he should be well 
acquainted with the difference of the two monosyllables 
in blazon, viz., on and in ; which, by observing, he will 
see makes a great difference in a coat of arms the 
former expressing the bearing to be placed on one of 
the ordinaries ; the latter as if the bearings were left 
remaining, but the ordinaries taken away. 


13. Argent on a chief f gules, three lozenges, or, 


14. Argent, three lozenges in chief, gules. 

ox A PALE. 

15. Argent on a pale, azure, three plates. 

30 Introduction to Heraldry, 


16. Argent, three hurts in pale. 


17. Gules, on a lend, argent, three mullets, azure. 


18. Argent, three mullets in bend, sable. 


19. Argent, on a fess, vert, three trefoils, or, 


20. Argent, three trefoils, in /ess, vert. 


21. Purpure, on a cross, argent, five crescents, gules. 


22. Argent, five crescents in cross, gules. 


23. Azure, on a saltire, argent, five torteaux. 


24. Argent, five torteaux in saltire. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 31 

of i3la?omng. 

THIS science, according to the Notitia Anglicana, 
teaches how to describe the things borne in proper 
terms, according to their several gestures, positions, 
and tinctures; and how to marshal or dispose regu- 
larly divers arms on a field, in which particular care 
must be observed, because the adding or omitting any 
part is oftentimes an alteration of the coat. 

In blazon the following rules must be carefully fol- 
lowed : 

First, in blazoning a coat, you must always begin 
with the field; noticing the lines wherewith it is 
divided, whether per pale, per fess, per bend, &c., as 
also the difference of those lines, whether indented, 
engrailed, &c. ; then proceed to the next immediate 
charge. By an immediate charge is meant that which 
lies next the field, and nearest the centre; this must 
be first named; and then those which are more 
remote : for example, azure, a crescent, between three 
stars argent ; thus the crescent is first named, as being 
-next the centre of the field. See PI. xii., n. 21. 

If a coat consist of two colours only, as the coat 
of Kobinson, you are to blazon it vert, a chevron, 
between three bucks standing at gaze, or ; which implies 
that both the chevron and bucks are or. See PL xiv., 
n. 15. 

When colour and metal are placed several times 
one upon the other, as PL XL, n. 13, Azure, on a 
chevron, between three besants, as many pallets, gules. 
Here the chevron is named first after the field, because 
it is nearest the centre ; and as the pallets lie upon the 

32 Introduction to Heraldry. 

chevron, so they are most remote from the field, and 
must be last named. But when bearings are described 
without expressing the point of the escutcheon where 
they are to be placed, they are then understood to 
possess the centre of the shield : for instance, argent, a 
lion rampant, gules ; but if I say, argent, a lion rampant 
in base, gules, it must be placed in the base part of a 
shield, which is the bottom. 

A repetition, in blazoning a coat, of such words as 
of, on, and, with, is accounted a great fault, or indeed 
of any w*ords, for tautology should be particularly 
avoided ; as, for example, or, on a saltire azure, nine 
lozenges of the first ; and not, or, on a saltire azure, nine 
lozenges or ; because the word or is then named twice. 
But be careful that, by endeavouring to be concise, 
you are not ambiguous, and that you omit nothing 
which ought to be mentioned. 

It is a general rule in English Heraldry, that metal 
shall never be placed upon metal, nor colour upon colour ; 
but examples are frequently found in foreign courts, 
particularly German. 


In blazoning of charges, be they of what nature or 
kind soever, whether animate or inanimate, if you per- 
ceive them to be of the natural and proper colours of 
the creatures or things they represent, you must always 
term them proper, and not argent, or, gules, or by the 
like terms of this science. 


In blazoning of ordinaries formed of straight lines, 
you must only name the ordinary, without making 
mention of the straightness of the line whereof it is 

Introduction to Heraldry. 33 

composed; for example, PI. iv., n. 5, Argent, a 'betid 
azure ; but if the ordinary, &c., should be engrailed, wavy, 
nebuly, embattled, it must not be omitted : for example, 
PI. XL, n. 12, ermine, on a chevron engrailed, azure, 
three estoiles argent. 


The teeth, claws, or talons of lions, tigers, bears, 
leopards, boars, wolves, dragons, and all ravenous 
beasts, are called their arms, because they are weapons 
of defence and offence. When these are of a different 
tincture from their bodies, the colour must be named ; 
and when their tongues are of the colour of their arms, 
they are said to be langued, as a lion argent, armed 
and langued, gules. The claws and tongue of a lion 
are always gules, unless the field or charge be gules ; 
then they must be azure. 

Among such beasts as by nature are milder, and 
by custom more sociable, may be reckoned the bull, 
ox, goat, ram, &c., which are endowed by nature with 
weapons, as horns, which, together with their hoofs, 
are very often of a colour different from their bodies ; 
we then say armed and hoofed, or unguled, of such or 
such tinctures. 

Deer, being by nature timorous and without cou- 
rage, are supposed to wear their lofty antlers, not as 
weapons, but ornaments ; therefore, in blazon, we say 

As to the dog, there are various kinds, bred up to 
divers exercises and games ; so that the first considera- 
tion is, what kind of dog is borne, as greyhounds, 
spaniels, talbots, &c. ; what sport he seems fitted for ; 
and hence the particular terms of beating, coursing, 


34 Introduction to Heraldry. 

scenting, &c., are very proper if they be found in 
gestures suitable to their several exercises. 

Nisbet says, when animals are painted upon ban- 
ners, they must look to the staff; when upon capa- 
risons and other horse furniture, they ought to look 
to the head of the horse that bears them ; and so of all 
things whose parts are distinguished by ante and post. 


In blazoning birds of prey, as the eagle, vulture, 
hawk, kite, owl, &c., all whose weapons, viz., beaks 
and talons, are termed arms, we say armed and mem- 
ber ed so and so, when they differ in colour from the 

But when you meet with swans, geese, ducks, cranes, 
herons, cormorants, &c., which are a kind of river- 
fowl, and have no talons, instead of armed, you must 
say beaked and membered ; the last term signifying the 
leg of any fowl, as the feet of swans, geese, ducks, &c., 
are webbed, and in some measure resemble the palm of 
a man's hand ; so in blazon they are sometimes termed 

In blazoning the cock, you must say armed, crested, 
and jelloped ; armed signifies his beak and spurs ; crested, 
his comb ; and jelloped, his wattles : when his comb, 
beak, wattles, and spurs, are of a different tincture 
from his body, then in blazon they must be named ; 
for instance, azure, a cock argent, armed, crested, and 
jelloped, gules. 

As to the falcon, this bird is borne in the same pos- 
tures as the eagle, and described in the same terms, 
except when with Iwod, bells, virols (or rings), and 
leashes. In blazon he is said to be hooded,belled. jessed, 

Introduction to Heraldry. 35 

and leashed, and the colours thereof must be named ; 
pouncing is a term given when he is striking at his prey. 

Edmonson remarks, that when small birds are borne 
in coat-armour, they are most usually drawn in the 
form and shape of blackbirds, although they are repre- 
sented in all the different colours and metals of heraldry, 
and, consequently, no distinction of species is made : 
therefore, in blazon they are called by the general 
terms of birds only. Hence, then, when you find birds 
mentioned in a blazon without expressing the sort 
they are of, they must always be drawn as blackbirds 
in shape. 


Nearly every variety of fish is used in heraldry 
the dolphin occupying the principal position, like the 
lion among animals, and the eagle among birds ; the 
others are chiefly used to designate the name of the 
bearer, as in the names of Herring, Eoach, Pike, Sal- 
mon, &c., and the kind of fish intended may generally 
thus be ascertained. The heraldic terms peculiar to 
fish are hauriant, with their heads raised upright or 
breathing (PI. xvi., 21 and 23) ; naiant or in their 
swimming position (PI. xvi., 20), and embowed applied 
exclusively to the curved position of the dolphin (PL 
xvi., 17, 18, 22). Occasionally we meet with the terms 
allume when their eyes are bright, and pame when 
their mouths are open. When the kind of fish is not 
named, the ordinary shape is implied, similar to a dace 
or herring. 

When the fins of fishes are of a different tincture 
from their bodies, they are then said to be finned of 
such a colour, naming it, as a dolphin proper, finned or. 

36 Introduction to Heraldry. 


Should the bearing be of any heavenly body, such 
as a planet, &c., your first consideration is, in what 
state or condition such planet appears to be : as the 
sun, whether in Ms meridian or eclipse ; or the moon, 
whether in her increase or decrease, &c. ; then give your 
description in proper astronomical terms : for it is a rule 
that all blazons are the more elegant when expressed 
in the proper terms of the several arts or sciences 
which the figures to be described are of, or belonging 
to ; yet you must take care not to omit any armorial 
term necessary to be used. Thus, in the coat of St. Clere, 
PI. xiii., n. 3, azure, the sun in his meridian, proper, the 
word proper must not be omitted. 


When you meet with any kind of tree, or any vege- 
table, or their parts, you must observe, first, in what 
condition it seems to appear, as whether spread or 
Hasted ; what kind of tree, whether bearing fruit or not ; 
if a part only, what part ; whether the trunk, branches, 
fruit, or leaves ; if the former, whether standing or not ; 
if not, in what manner it seems to have been felled ; 
whether eradicated or torn up by the roots; see PI. 
xiii., n. 22. If the bearing consist of members, as its 
branches, fruit, or leaves only, whether with fruit or 
withered ; or simply alone, whether slipped, as PL xvin., 
n. 9, 10; pendent (drooping) or erect; which last holds 
goods for all kinds of flowers or grain, when borne 
simply, or on their stalks. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 37 


Man, and the parts of his body, are frequently 
charges in coat-armour ; as to which these considera- 
tions follow. First, as is said of other things, whether 
he is borne whole, or in part ; if whole, in what kind of 
gesture or action ; also, whether naked or habited ; if the 
latter, after what manner, as whether rustic, in armour, 
or in robes. 

When the temples of a man or woman are encircled 
with laurel, oak, ivy, &c., you are to call it wreathed 
with laurel, oak, or ivy. 

of 23Ia?onrg. 

HAVING now explained rudimentally the terms, &c., 
of the science, and concisely enumerated the rules of 
blazon, we proceed to illustrate the theory by examples, 
which, if carefully examined, one by one, cannot fail 
to prove of the highest utility to the young student. 


1. Argent, on a chief gules, two mullets pierced or ; 

name, St. John. 

2. Argent, a fess, and in chief three lozenges sable ; 

name, Aston. 

3. Or, two bars azure, a chief quarterly, azure and 

gules, on the first two fleurs-de-lis, or ; the second, 
a lion, passant-gardant of the last ; the third as 
the second ; the fourth as the first ; name Manners. 

N.B. Of the first is of the colour or metal of tlie field, which 
is always first mentioned. 

38 Introduction to Heraldry. 

Note. The term on the first is to be understood 
on the field of the first quarter ; the second is the 
field of the second quarter charged of the last, 
that is, of the last-mentioned colour or metal, 
which is or ; the third as the second, the fourth 
as the first, which signifies the third quarter like 
the second, and the fourth quarter like the first. 

4. Gules, a chief argent ; on the lower part thereof a 

cloud, the sun's resplendent rays issuing thereout 
proper ; name, Leeson. 

5. Ermine, on a canton sable, a harp argent ; name, 


6. Argent, on a quarter gules, a spear in bend or ; 

name, Knight. 

7. Argent, on a fess sable, three mullets, or ; name, 


8. Azure, a fess super-embattled, between six estoiles 

or; name, Tryon. 

9. Or, on a fess, between two chevrons sable, three 

cross-croslets of the first ; name, Walpole. 

10. Argent, a fess and canton conjoined gules; name, 


11. Ermine, three lozenges conjoined in fess, sable ; 

name, Pigot. 

12. Ermine, on a chevron engrailed azure, three estoiles 

argent ; name, Smyth. 

13. Azure, on a chevron or between three besants, as 

many pallets gules ; name, Hope. 

14. Ermine, a chevron couped sable ; name, Jones. 

15. Azure, a chevron engrailed, voided plain, or ; name, 

Dudley. <# 

16. Sable, a chevron cotised between three cinquefoils, 

name, Henton. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 39 

17. Gules, a chevron between ten cinquefoils, four and 

two, in chief ; one, two and one in base, argent ; 
name, Berkley. 

18. Sable, two lion's paws issuing out of the dexter and 

sinister base points, erected chevronwise, argent, 
armed gules ; name, Frampton. 

19. Sable, a bend or, between six fountains; name, 


20. Argent, on a bend gules, cotised sable, three pair of 

wings conjoined and inverted of the first ; name, 

21. Sable, a bend flory counter-flory, argent ; name, 


22. Sable, a bend and chief or ; name, 

23. Argent, two bends raguled sable, the lower one re- 

bated at the top ; name, Wagstaff. 

24. Sable, four lozenges in bend between two plain 

cotises argent ; name, Puckering. 

25. Argent, three bugle-horns in bend gules, garnished 

and stringed vert ; name, Hunter. 

26. Vert, on a pale radiant or, a lion rampant sable ; 

name, O'Hara. 

27. Argent, on a pale, between two leopards' faces 

sable, three crescents or ; name, . 

28. Argent, a pale and chief sable ; name, Mendorf. 

29. Sable, a key erected in pale or, between two pallets 

erminois ; name, Knot. 

30. Argent, three pallets wavy gules ; name, Downes. 

31. Gules, three tilting-spears, erect in fess or, heads 

argent ; name, Amherst. 

32. Azure, three leopards' faces in pale or ; name, Snigg. 

33. Argent, on a pile engrailed azure, three crescents 

of the first ; name, Dallison. 

40 Introduction to Heraldry. 

34. Sable, a pile argent, surmounted of a chevron 

gules ; name, Dyxton. 

35. Argent, three piles, one issuant out of the chief 

between two others reversed, and issuing from 
the base, sable ; name, Hulse. 


1. Sable, on a cross within a border, both engrailed 

or, five pellets ; name, Oreville. 

2. Gules, a cross of lozenges between four roses 

argent ; name, Packer. 

3. Argent, a cross sable, edged with a tressure of half 

fleurs-de-lis, between four mullets pierced of the 
second (that is, of the second colour mentioned, 
which is sable) ; name, Atkins. 

4. Or, a cross vert, on a bend over all gules, three 

fleurs-de-lis of the first ; name, Beringer. 

5. Azure, five escalop shells in cross or ; name, 


6. Sable, a shin-bone in pale, surmounted of another 

in fess argent ; name, Baines. 

7. Ermine, on a cross quarter, pierced, argent, four 

millrinds sable ; name, Tumor. 

8. Party per fess, sable and argent, a pale, counter- 

changed ; on each piece of the first a trefoil 
slipped of the second ; name, Simeon. 

9. Or, on a saltire raguly gules, five cross-croslets 

fitchy of the first ; name, Rich. 

10. Gules, a saltire between four crescents or ; name, 


11. Gyrony of four, argent and gules, a saltire between 

as many cross-croslets, all counterchanged ; name, 

Introduction to Heraldry. 41 

12. Gules, a saltire, or, over all a cross engrailed 

ermine ; name, Prince. 

13. Party per saltire, gules and or, in pale two garbs, 

and in fess as many roses, all counterchanged ; 
name, Hilborne. 

14. Sable, two shin-bones, in saltire, the sinister sur- 

mounted of the dexter ; name, Newton. 

15. Gules, five mar lions' wings inverted in saltire 

argent ; name, Porter. 

16. Or, three closets wavy, gules; name, Drummond. 

17. Azure, two bars counter-imbattled ermine ; name, 


18. Or, two bars-gemel sable, in chief, three pellets ; 

name, Hildesley. 

19. Argent, three bars-gemel azure, on a chief gules, a 

barrulet indented or ; name, Hay don. 

20. Sable three leopards' faces jessant fleurs-de-lis or ; 

name, Morley. 

21. Azure, a crescent between three mullets argent; 

name, Arbuthnot. 

The following fourteen coats are 'collected to show how useful 
the points of the escutcheon are in blazon, which the learner 
will find very essential in his practice of this science. 

22. Sable, three swords barwise, in pale, their points 

towards the sinister part of the escutcheon argent, 
the hilts and pommels or ; name, Eawlyns. 

23. Gules, three swords, barwise, their points towards 

the dexter part of the shield, hilted or ; name, 

24. Gules, three swords, conjoined at the pommels in 

the centre, their points extended into the corners 
of the escutcheon argent ; name, Stapleton. 

42 Introduction to Heraldry. 

25. Sable, three swords, their points meeting in base 

argent, hilted or ; name, Paulet or Powlet. 

26. Or, three swords, one in fess surmounted of the 

other two in saltire, points upwards, between a 
dexter hand in chief, and a heart in base gules ; 
name, Ewart. 

27. Sable, three swords in pale, two with their points 

downward, and the middlemost upward ; name, 

28. Azure, three swords, one in pale, point upward, 

surmounted of the other two, placed in saltire, 
points downward, argent ; name, Norton. 

29. Sable, a fess or, between two swords ; that in 

chief point upwards, the other downwards, both 
in pale argent, hilted of the second; name, 

30. Azure, one ray of the sun issuing out of the dexter 

corner of the escutcheon, in bend proper ; name, 
A Idam. 

31. Azure, a pile inverted in bend sinister, or; name, 


32. Argent, a triple pile, flory on the tops, issuing out 

of the sinister base in bend, towards the dexter 
corner, sable ; name, Wroton. 

33. Sable, a goshawk close, argent, standing upon a 

perch, fixed in base, jessed and belled or ; name, 

34. Gules, a bend wavy argent, in the sinister chief 

point, a falcon standing on a perch or; name, 

35. Or, a dexter arm embowed, issuant from the sinister 

fess-point out of a cloud proper, holding a cross- 
croslet fitchy, azure. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 43 


1. Gules, three lions' gambs erased argent; name, 


2. Party per saltire, sable and ermine, a lion rampant 

or, armed and langued gules ; name, Graf ton. 

3. Azure, the sun in his meridian, proper; name, 

St. Clare. 

4. Argent, a lion rampant gules, debruised by a fess 

azure, between three estoiles issuing out of as 
many crescents of the second ; name, Dillon, of 

5. Argent, on a chevron sable, between three oak- 

leaves proper, as many besants on a chief gules, 
a sea-mew between two anchors erected of the 
first ; name, Monox. 

6. Quarterly, first and fourth azure, a pale argent, 

second and third gules, a bend argent. 

7. Sable, four pallets ermine ; name, Humphrey. 

8. Or, six annulets, three, two, and one, sable ; name, 


Note. When six things are borne, three, two, and one, it is 
unnecessary to mention their position. 

9. Gules, nine arrows or, each three, two saltirewise, 

and one in pale, banded together with a ribbon, 
feathered and headed argent ; name, Biest. 

10. Gules, five cross-croslets fitchy in saltire, between 

four escalop-shells in cross or ; name, Tonnson. 

11. Azure, three hautboys between as many cross- 

croslets or ; name, Bourden. 

12. Azure, a salamander or, in flames proper; name, 


44 Introduction to Heraldry. 

13. Party per chevron, argent and gules, a crescent 

counter changed ; name, Chapman. 

14. Party per saltire, or and sable, a border counter- 

changed; name, Shorter. 

15. Quarterly or and azure, a cross of four lozenges 

between as many annulets counterchanged ; name, 

16. Argent, a chevron gules, between three scorpions 

reversed sable ; name, Cole. 

17. Argent, on a fess, between six martlets gules, three 

cinquefoils of the field ; name, WasJibourne. 

18. Sable, three scaling-ladders in bend argent ; name, 


19. Sable, a falcon or, his wings expanded, trussing a 

mallard argent, on a chief of the latter, a cross 
botone gules ; name, Madden. 

20. Argent, on a chevron azure, between three trefoils 

slipped, party per pale gules and vert, as many 
besants; name, How. 

21. Gules, three dexter arms conjoined at the shoul- 

ders, and flexed in triangle, or, with the fists 
clenched towards the points of the shield proper ; 
name, Tremaine. 

22. Gules, the trunk of a tree eradicated (torn up by 

the roots) and couped in pale, sprouting out two 
branches argent ; name, Borough. 

23. Gules, a cherub, having three pair of wings, 

whereof the uppermost and lowermost are 
counterly crossed, and the middlemost displayed, 
or; name, Buocafoco. 

24. Argent, a man's heart gules, within two equilateral 

triangles interlaced ; name, Villages. 

25. Gules, three besants figured; name, Gamin. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 45 

26. Argent, a chevron voided, azure, between three 

flames of fire proper ; name, Wells. 

27. Sable, chevron rompu, enhanced between three 

mullets or ; name, Sault. 

28. Sable, a chevron engrailed, ermine, between three 

annulets argent ; borne by the Rev. Charles Davy, 
of One-house, Suffolk. 

29. Azure, a bull's head couped affronte, argent, 

winged and armed or ; name, Hoast, of Holland. 

30. Or, three stars issuing out of as many crescents 

gules ; name, Bateman, Vise. Bateman. 

31. Sable, a chevron or, between three attires of a stag 

fixed to the scalp, argent; name, Cocks, Lord 

32. Argent, a man's heart gules, ensigned with an im- 

perial crown or, on a chief azure, three mullets 
of the field; name, Douglas, of Scotland. The 
reason of this singular charge is, that one Douglas 
was sent on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, 
A.D. 1328, with the heart of Robert Bruce, King 
of Scotland, which, by order of that prince, was 
to be and is now buried there. 

33. Argent, on a bend gules, between three pellets, as 

many swans proper, rewarded with a canton 
sinister azure, thereupon a demi-ram mounting 
argent, armed or, between two fleurs-de-lis of the 
last, over all a baton dexter-wise, as the second 
in the canton; this is the arms of Sir John 
Clarice. The canton was the arms of the Duke of 
Longueville, and was given as a reward to Sir 
John Clarke, for his taking in lawful war Lewis 
of Orleans, Duke of Longueville, prisoner at 
the battle of the Spurs, near Terouane, August 
16, anno Hen. VIII. 5. 

46 Introduction to Heraldry. 

34. Azure, three sturgeons naiant in pale argent, and 

debruised by a fret of eight pieces or ; name, 

35. Or, three dice sable each charged with an ace 

argent ; name, Ambesace. 


1 . Argent, a saltire gules, between four wolves' heads 

couped proper ; name, Outlawe. 

2. Gules, three demi-lions rampant, a chief or ; name, 


3. Argent, a fess sable, between three lions' heads 

erased gules, langued azure ; name, Farmer. 

4. Gules, a lion couchant between six cross-croslets, 

three in chief, and three in base barwise, argent ; 
name, Tynte. 

5. Azure, a lion passant, between three estoiles argent ; 

name, Burrard. 

6. Argent, a chevron gules, between three lions passant- 

gardant sable ; name, Cooke. 

7. Party per chevron, vert and or, in chief a rose or, 

between two fleurs-de-lis argent ; in base a lion 
rampant-regardant, azure ; name, Gideon. 

8. Party per pale, argent and sable, a lion rampant or, 

within a border of the field, engrailed and counter- 
changed ; name, Champneys. 

9. Argent, a lion sejant azure, between three torteaux. 

10. Argent, a lion saliant, in chief three pellets. 

11. Gules, a lion rampant-gardant, double-queuee (or 

queue fourchee) or, holding in his paws a rose- 
branch proper ; name, Masters. 

The term queuee applies to the tail of a beast, and the term 
fourclufe denotes its being forked, as the example. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 47 

12. Or, a pale between two lions rampant sable ; name, 


13. Argent, three bars wavy azure, over all a lion 

rampant of the first ; name, Bulbeck. 

14. Argent, a chevron between three bucks tripping 

sable, attired or ; name, Rogers. 

15. Vert, a chevron between three bucks standing at 

gaze or ; name, Robinson. 

16. Argent, a bend engrailed azure, between two bucks' 

heads cabosed sable ; name, Needham. 

17. Argent, three greyhounds current in pale sable, 

collared or ; name, Moore. 

18. A hart cumbent upon a hill in a park paled, all 

proper ; the arms of the town of Derby. 

19. Argent, three moles sable, their snouts and feet 

gules ; name, Nangothan. 

20. Gules, three conies sejant within a bordue engrailed 

argent; name, Conisbie. 

21. Argent, a chevron gules between three talbots 

passant sable ; name, Talbot. 

22. Or, a chevron gules between three lions' paws 

erased and erected sable ; name, Austen, of Kent, 

23. Argent, two lions' gambs erased in saltire, the 

dexter surmounted of the sinister, gules. 

24. Sable, three lions' tails erect and erased argent; 

name, CorJce. 

The two Plates XV. and XVII., are introduced to show the 
student of heraldry the concise and easy method which is 
in practice among heralds, heraldic painters, and engravers, 
of tricking coats of arms. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 


Made use of in the heraldic sketches * and blazons of 
Plates XIV. and XVI. 





\ stands for \ Vert, 

j Proper, 
( Ermine. 


1. A, a saltire G, between four wolves' heads couped 


2. G, three demi-lions couped A, a chief 0, 

3. A, on a fess S, between three lions' heads erased G, 

langued B. 

4. G, a lion couched between six cross -croslets, three 

in chief, and as many in -base A. 

5. B, a lion passant, between three estoiles A. 

6. A, a chevron G, between three lions passant-gar- 

dant S. 

7. Party per chevron, V and 0, in chief a rose 0, be- 

tween two fleurs-de-lis A, in base a lion rampant- 
regardant B. 

8. Party per pale, A and S, within a bordure of the 

same engrailed andj counterchanged, a lion 
rampant 0. 

9. A lion sejant B, between three torteaux. 

10. A lion saliant Ppr. and in chief three pellets. 

* Coats thus sketched are by heralds said to be '* in trick." 

Introduction to Heraldry. 49 

11. G, a lion rampant-garclant double queuee 0, hold- 

ing in his paws a rose-branch Ppr. 

12. 0, a pale between two lions rampant S. 

13. A, three bars wavy B, over all a lion rampant of 

the first. 

14. A, chevron between three bucks tripping S, at- 

tired 0. 

15. V, a chevron between three bucks standing at 

gaze 0. 

16. A, a bend engrailed B, between two bucks' heads 

caboshed S. 

17. A, three greyhounds current in pale S, collared of 

the first. 

18. A hart cumbent upon a hill in a park paled, all Ppr. 

19. A, three moles, S, their snouts and feet G. 

20. G, three conies sejant, within a bordure engrailed A. 

21. A, a chevron G, between three talbots passant S. 

22. 0, a chevron G, between three lions' paws erased 

and erect S. 

23. A, two lions' gambs erased in saltire, the dexter 

surmounted of the sinister G. 

24. S, three lions' tails erect and erased A. 


1. Argent, a heron volant, in fess azure, membered or, 

between three escalops, sable ; name, Herondon. 

2. Or, three kingfishers proper ; name, Fisher. 

3. Or, three eagles displayed gules ; name, Eglefelde. 

4. Azure, a bend engrailed between two cygnets royal 

argent, gorged with ducal crowns, strings reflexed 
over their backs, or ; name, Pitfield. 

5. Azure, a pelican with wings elevated and vulning 

50 Introduction to Heraldry. 

her breast argent, between three fleurs-de-lis, or ; 
name, Kempton. 

6. Azure, three doves rising argent, their wings gules, 

and crowned with ducal coronets or; name, 

7. Argent, on a pile gules, three owls of the field ; 

name, Cropley. 

8. Argent, three eagles' heads, or, erased sable ; name, 


9. Argent, three peacocks in their pride proper ; name, 


10. Or, three swallows close sable ; name, Walton. 

11. Azure, on a bend cotised argent, three martlets 

gules ; name, Edwards. 

12. Ermine, on two bars gules, three martlets or ; name, 


13. Argent, on a fess between three trefoils azure, as 

many swans' heads erased of the first, beaked 
gules ; name, Baker. 

14. Argent, on a pale azure, three pair of wings con- 

joined and elevated of the first ; name, Potter. 

15. Argent, six ostrich-feathers, three, two, and one, 

sable ; name, Jarvis. 

16. Argent, a chevron between three eagles' legs 

erased sable, their talons gules ; name, Bray. 

17. Azure, a dolphin naiant embowed or, on a chief of 

the second, two saltires coupled gules; name, 

18. Or, three dolphins hauriant embowed azure ; name, 


19. Sable, a dolphin naiant, embowed, vorant a fish 

proper ; name, James. 

20. Argent, three eels naiant in pale, sable ; name, Ellis. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 51 

21. Or, three chalbots hauriant gules ; name, ChaJbots. 

22. Argent, on a bend azure, three dolphins naiant of 

the first ; name, Franklyn. 

23. Sable, a chevron ermine, between three salmons 

hauriant argent ; name, Ord. 

24. Argent, a chevron engrailed sable, between three 

sea-crabs gules ; name, Bridger. 


1. A, a heron volant, in fess B, membered 0, between 

three escalops S. 

2. 0, three kingfishers Ppr. 

3. 0, three eagles displayed G. 

4. B, a bend engrailed between two cygnets royal A. 

gorged with ducal crowns, strings reflexed over 
their backs 0. 

5. B, a pelican with wings elevated, and vulning her 

breast A, between three fleurs-de-lis O. 

6. B, three doves rising A, their legs G, and crowned 

with ducal coronets O. 

7. A, on a pile G, three owls of the field. 

8. A, three eagles' heads erased S, armed 0. 

9. A, three peacocks in their pride Ppr. 

10. 0, three swallows close Ppr. 

11. B, on a bend cotised A, three martlets G. 

12. Er. on two bars G, three martlets, O. 

13. A, on a fess between three trefoils B, as many 

swans' necks erased of the first, beaked G. 

14. A, on a pale B, three pair of wings conjoined and 

elevated of the first. 

15. A, six ostrich-feathers S. 

16. A, a chevron between three eagles' legs erased a la 

cuisse (cuisse signifies the thigh) S, their talons G. 

52 Introduction to Heraldry. 

17. B, a dolphin naiant embowed 0, on a chief of the 

second two saltires G. 

18. 0, three dolphins hauriant B. 

19. S, a dolphin naiant, vorant a fish Ppr. 

20. A, three eels naiant in pale S. 

21. O, three chalbots hauriant G. 

22. A, on a bend B, three dolphins of the first. 

23. S, a chevron Er. between three salmons hauriant A. 
2i. A, a chevron engrailed S, between three sea- 
crabs G. 


1. Gules, on a bend sinister argent, three of the celes- 

tial signs, viz. Sagittarius, Scorpio, and Libra, 
of the first. 

2. Ermine, three increscents gules ; name, Symmes. 

3. Azure, the sun, full moon, and seven stars or, the 

two first "in chief, the last of orbicular form in 
base ; name, Johannes de Fontibus. 

4. Argent, on a chevron gules, between three crescents 

sable, a mullet for difference or ; name, Withers. 

5. Argent, two bars sable, between six estoiles, three, 

two, and one, gules ; name, Pearse. 

6. Argent, issuant out of two petit clouds in fess 

azure, a rainbow in the noinbril point, a star, 

7 . Azure, a blazing star, or comet, streaming in bend 

proper; name, Cartwright. 

8. Azure, a fess dancette or, between three cherubim's 

heads argent, crined of the second ; name, Adye. 

9. Argent, three woodbine-leaves bend- wise proper, 

two and one ; name, TJieme. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 53 

10. Or, three woodbine-leaves pendant azure; name, 


11. Azure, issuant out of a mount in base three wheat- 

stalks bladed and eared, all proper; name, 

12. Or, on a mount in base, an oak acorned proper; 

name, Wood. 

13. Argent, three starved branches slipped sable ; name, 


14. Argent, three stocks or stumps of trees, couped 

and erased sable ; name, Retoivre. 

15. Or, on a bend sable, three clusters of grapes argent ; 

name, Maroley. 

16. Gules, a bend of the limb of a tree, raguled and 

trunked argent ; name, Penruddock. 

17. Barry of six pieces, or and sable, over all a pale 

gules, charged with a woman's breast distilling 
drops of milk proper ; name, Dodge. 

18. Argent, an arm sinister, issuing out of the dexter 

point, and extended towards the sinister base, in 
form of a bend gules ; name, Cornliill. 

19. Argent, three sinister hands couped at the wrist 

gules ; name, Maynard. 

20. Or, a man's leg couped at the midst of the thigh 

azure ; name, Haddon. 

21. Sable, a chevron between three children's heads 

couped at the shoulders argent, crined or, en- 
wrapped about the necks with as many snakes 
proper ; name, Vaughan. 

22. Argent, on a chevron gules, three men's skulls of 

the first ; name, Bolter. 

23. Or, a king enthroned on his seat, royal azure, 

crowned, sceptred, and invested of the first ; the 

54 Introduction to Heraldry. 

cape of his robe ermine. These are the arms of 
the city of Seville, in Spain. 

24. Gules, three demi-savages, or wild men argent, hold- 
ing clubs over their right shoulders or; name, 
Basil Woodd. 


1. Party per pale indented, or and gules; name, 


2. Party per chevron nebuly, sable and or, three pan- 

thers' heads erased counterchanged ; name, Smith. 

3. Party per fess dancette, or and azure, two mullets 

pierced counterchanged ; name, Doubleday. 

4. Party per bend crenelle, or imbattled argent and 

gules ; name, Boyle. 

5. Party per bend sinister, ermine and ermines, a lion 

rampant or ; name, Trevor. 

6. Party per saltire, argent and or, four eagles in cross 

sable ; name, Barnsdale. 

7. Quarterly, per pale dove-tailed, gules and or ; name, 


8. Azure, a fess wavy, argent, in chief three stars ; 

name, Jenkinson. 

9. Argent, a double tressure-flory counter-flory, over 

all a fess imbattled counter-imbattled gules ; 
name, Miller. 

10. Argent, on a fess raguly azure, three fleurs-de-lis 

or ; name, Atwood. 

11. Azure, two bars indented or, a chief argent; name, 


12. Or, a fess dancette sable ; name, Vavasour. 

13. Argent, on a fess engrailed gules, three leopards' 

faces or ; name, Barbon. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 55 

14. Argent, a fess invecked, between three torteaux. 

15. Azure, a fess nebuly, between three crescents 

ermine ; name, Weld. 

16. Azure, a saltire quarterly quartered, or and argent, 

is the arms of the episcopal see of Bath and 

17. Or, a fess cheeky argent and azure ; name, Stewart. 

18. Gules, a chevron counter-compony argent and sable, 

between three fleurs-de-lis or ; name, Shirley. 

19. Quarterly, first and fourth argent, a chevron gules 

between three torteaux; second quarterly; first, 
argent, a bend gules; second, argent, a fess 
azure ; third, argent, a chevron sable ; fourth, 
argent, a pale vert ; third, argent, a fess between 
three billets gules. 

20. Ermine, two flanches azure, each charged with 

three ears of wheat couped or ; name, Greby. 

21. Or, a buffalo's head caboshed sable, attired argent, 

through the nostrils an annulet of the last, 
ducally crowned gules, the attire passing through 
the crown ; is the arms of Mecklenburg. 

22. Or, a buffalo's head in profile sable, armed argent, 

ducally crowned gules ; is the arms of the barony 
of Rostock in Mecklenburg. 

23. Gules, an arm embowed, in armour to the wrist, 

issuing from clouds on the sinister side, and 
holding between the finger and thumb a gem- 
ring all proper, round the arm at the elbow a 
ribbon tied azure ; is the arms of the county of 
Schwerin in Germany. 

24. Argent, a wheel of eight spokes, gules ; is the arms 

of the Bishop of Osnaburgh. 

56 Introduction to Heraldry. 


MARSHALLING coats of arms is the art of disposing 
several, or more than one, of them in one escutcheon, 
and of distributing their parts and contingent orna- 
ments in proper places. Coats of arms are thus 
marshalled on various accounts : viz. to show descent, 
marriage, alliance, adoption, or the gift of the sove- 

Such coats as betoken marriage represent either a 
match single or hereditary. By a single match is 
meant the conjoining of the coat-armours of a man and 
woman, descended of distinct families, in one es- 
cutcheon pale- wise; the man bears his coat on the 
dexter side of the escutcheon, and the sinister part for 
the woman. See the example, PI. XL, n. 3. 

Sometimes in blazon the man and woman are called 
baron and femme. There are three rules to be observed 
in impaling the arms of husband and wife : First, the 
husband's arms are always to be placed on the right 
side as baron, and the wife's on the left as femme. 
Secondly, that no husband can impale his wife's arms 
with his own on a surcoat of arms, ensign, or banner, 
but may use them impaled on domestic utensils. 
Thirdly, that no husband impaling his wife's arms with 
his own can surround the shield with the order of the 
Garter, or with any other order. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 57 

When a man marries an heiress and has issue by 
her, it is in his choice whether he will still bear her 
coat impaled, or in an escutcheon of pretence upon his 
own ; because he pretendeth (God giving life to such 
his issue) to bear the same coat of his wife to him and 
to his heirs. 

Moreover the heir of these two inheritors shall bear 
the hereditary coats of his father and mother to him- 
self and his heirs quarterly : the father's in the first 
and fourth, the mother's in the second and third 
quarters, to show that the inheritance, as well of the 
possessions, as of the coat-armours, are invested in 
them and their posterity. See PI. XIIL, n. 6. If 
the wife be no heir, neither her husband nor child 
shall have further to do with her coat, than to set up 
the same in their house pale-wise, to show the father's 
match with such a family. 

Concerning the bearing of several coat-armours pale- 
wise in one escutcheon (according to Gerard Leigh), 
viz. the marshalling of divers femmes with one baron, 
he says : " If a man marry two wives, the first shall be 
placed on the sinister side of the chief part, and the 
second's coat on the base impaled with the husband." 
PI. XL., n. 5. 

Arms of a man and his three wives; the first two 
tierced in chief with his own, and the third in base. 
PL XL., n. 6. 

Arms of a man and his four wives; the two first 
tierced in chief, and the third and fourth in base. 
PL XL., n. 7. 

Arms of a man and his five wives ; his own in the 
middle, with his first three on the dexter side, and the 
fourth and fifth on the sinister. PL XL., n. 8. 

58 Introduction to Heraldry. 

Arms of a man and his six wives ; his own in the 
middle, with his first three on the dexter side, and the 
other three on the sinister. PL XL., n. 9. 
^ Arms of a man and his seven wives ; his own in the 
middle, with his first four on the dexter side, and the 
other three on the sinister. PI. XL., n. 10.* 


A widow is to impale the arms of her late husband 
on the dexter side of the paternal coat of her ancestor, 
upon a lozenge. PI. XL., n. 11. 


If a maiden, or dowager lady of quality, marry a 
commoner, or a nobleman inferior to her in rank, their 
coats of arms must be set side by side in two separate 
escutcheons. If the lady be privileged to retain her 
title and rank, she must continue her arms in a maiden 
or widow's escutcheon, which is a lozenge, placed on the 
sinister side of her husband's; the arms ornamented 
according to her title. See PI. XLI., n. 16. 


The arms of a widow, being an heiress, are to be 
borne on an escutcheon of pretence, over those of her 
late husband, in a lozenge. PI. XL., n. 12. 

* These five last rules and examples have been retained as part 
of the original work ; but if ever they were in practice they are now 
discarded. The object of Heraldry is distinctness. No person 
save an adept in the art could tell, from sucli marshalling, 
whether they were the coats of different wives, or quarterings 
brought in by one heiress. EDITOR. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 59 


Of a wife and her two husbands : the arms of the 
first husband in chief; the arms of the second husband 
in base, impaled on the dexter side of her own. See 
PI. XL., n. 13.* 


Whilst he remains such, he may quarter his paternal 
coat with other coats, if any right to him belongs ; but 
may not impale it till he is married. PI. XL., n. 1. 


She is entitled to bear the coat of her father in a 
lozenge. See PI. XL., n. 2. If her father bore any 
difference in his coat, the same ought to be continued ; 
for by that mark will be known what branch she 
descends from. 

All co-heiresses convey also to their husbands a 
right of bearing their arms on an escutcheon of pre- 
tence, the same as an heiress. 

If all the brothers die without issue, and leave sisters 
behind, as they are co-inheritors of the land and estate, 
so shall they be of the coat-armour also, without any 
distinction at all to either of them ; because by them 
the name of the house cannot be preserved, being all 
reckoned but as one heir. 

Anciently women of noble descent used to bear their 
fathers' arms on their mantles, to show their descent. 

* This also is now discarded, as a widow marrying a second 
husband loses all title to the arms of the first as well as to his 
name. EDITOR. 

60 Introduction to Heraldry. 

The ancient heralds tell us, when the arms are the 
same, both on the mantle and kirtle, they are then those 
of their fathers; and when there are arms on the 
mantle different from those on the under habit, the 
kirtle, she is then a wife : those on the mantle belong 
to her husband, who is a cloak to shroud the wife from 
all violence, and the other on the Jcirtle belonged to her 


Such as have a function ecclesiastical, and are pre- 
ferred to the honour of pastoral jurisdiction, are said to 
be knit in nuptial bands of love and care for the cathe- 
dral churches whereof they are superintendents ; there- 
fore their paternal coat is marshalled on the left side 
of the escutcheon, giving the pre-eminence of the right 
side to the arms of their see ; as the example, PI. XLI., 
n. 13. Deans of Cathedrals, Masters of Colleges and 
similar institutions, impale their arms in a like manner, 
with those of the Societies over which they preside. 


When married, the arms of his wife must be placed 
in a distinct shield, because his own is surrounded with 
the ensign of that order ; for though the husband may 
give his equal half of the escutcheon and hereditary 
honour, yet he cannot share his temporary order of 
knighthood with her, except she be sovereign of the 
order. PI. XLI., n. 14. This rule applies to all the 
orders of knighthood. 


Is when a shield is divided into many parts, then it 
shows the bearer's alliance to several families : and it 

Introduction to Heraldry. 61 

is to be observed, that in all marshalled arms, quarterly 
with coats of alliance, the paternal coat is always 
placed in the first quarter; as PI. xm., n. 6. 

When a coat is borne with four or more quarterings, 
and any one or more of those quarterings are again 
divided into two or more coats, then such a quarter is 
termed a grand quarter, and is said to be quarterly or 
counter-quartered. PI. xix., n. 19. 

Quartered arms were borne by Eleanor, queen of 
Edward I., and Isabella, queen of Edward II. ; but the 
first English king who quartered arms was Edward III., 
who bore England and France in right of his mother 
Isabel, daughter and heir of Philip IV. of France, and 
heir also to her three brothers, successively kings of 
France, which the same king afterwards changed to 
France and England upon his laying claim to the said 
kingdom ; and about the end of his reign his subjects 
began to imitate him, and quartered the arms of their 
maternal ancestors ; the first of whom is said to be 
Hastings, Earl of Pembroke. 


The arms of Sir George Beaumont, of Stoughton, 
Leicestershire, baronet: azure, semee of fleurs-de-lis, 
a lion rampant or, in a canton argent, a sinister hand 
couped at the wrist and erect, gules; are given at 
PI. XLI., n. 15. 

The canton charged with the hand, is the arms of 
the province of Ulster in Ireland, and was given by 
King James the First as a badge or augmentation of 
honour to all baronets. It may be placed as in the 
above example, or in an escutcheon, and is generally 
borne in the most convenient part of the shield, so 
as not to cover any principal charge. 

62 Introduction to Heraldry. 


If a commoner marry a lady of quality, he is not to 
impale her arms with his own ; they are to be set aside 
of one another in separate shields, as the lady still 
retains her title and rank: therefore her arms are 
placed as the example, PL XLI., n. 16. 


When a coat of arms, surrounded with a border, is 
marshalled pale-wise with another, then that part of 
the border which is next the coat impaled with it must 
be omitted. See PI. XL., n. 14. But if a, bordered 
coat be marshalled with other coats quarterly, then no 
part of the border must be omitted. See PI. XL., 
n. 15. 

Exterior Ornaments. 

THE exterior ornaments of the escutcheon are the 
helmet, mantling, wreath, crest, badge, motto, sup- 
porters, crown, or coronet. 


The helmet being placed 'at the top of the escutcheon, 
claims our first attention. These pieces of armour for 
the head have varied in different ages and countries, 
both in form and the materials of which they were 
made, and in English Heraldry they vary according to 
the rank of the bearer. See PL XLII. 

First, The full-faced helmet with six bars, all of 
gold, for the sovereign and princes of the blood. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 63 

Second, The full-faced helmet with five bars ; the 
helmet steel, and the bars and breast part gold; for 
dukes and marquesses. 

Third, A profile or side-faced helmet of steel; the 
bars, bailes, or grills, and ornaments gold ; for earls, 
viscounts, and barons. PI. XLII., n. 2. 

Fourth, A full-faced helmet of steel, with its beaver 
or vizor open ; for baronets and knights. PI. XLII., n. 3. 

Fifth, A profile or side- faced helmet of steel, with 
the vizor shut ; for an esquire. PI. XLII., n. 4. 

If two helmets are placed on one shield, they are usually set face 
to face, in imitation of the Germans, who sometimes place ten or 
more helmets on a shield, and in such case set the centre helmet 
aflrontee, and those on each side looking towards that in the centre. 


The mantling was anciently fixed to the helmet, 
from which it depended behind with escalloped or 
jagged edges and tassels. 

Mantlings are also used like cloaks to encompass 
the whole achievement, the ornaments flowing from 
the helmet being called lambrequins. 

According to the modernized mode of bearing 
mantles, those of the sovereign are supposed to be 
of gold doubled with ermine ; those of the peers, 
crimson velvet folded, and ermine inside ; and those 
of knights and gentlemen, crimson velvet doubled 
with white satin. 

Mr. Edmondson, in his Complete Body of Heraldry, 
says, in the year 1760 he proposed to several of the 
peers, to paint on their carriages their arms placed in 
mantles of crimson, with their edges thrown back so 
as to show their doublings and linings, which should 

64 Introduction to Heraldry. 

be of ermine, and containing a number of rows of 
ermine spots, equal to those of the guards on their 
coronation robes, expressing their respective degrees : 
viz. a baron, two rows; a viscount, two and a half; 
an earl, three; a marquis, three and a half; a duke, 
four, &c. 

" This proposal," he adds, " having met with general 
approbation, was carried into execution, and had the 
desired effect of showing the distinction between the 
several degrees of our nobility ; after which I formed 
mantles for the knights companions of the several 
orders, taken from the mantles and robes which they 
wear at their installations." 

The lambrequin should be of the principal colour 
in the arms, and the lining of the principal metal. 
Considerable fancy and taste may be displayed in 
these ornaments, which were often powdered with the 
badges of the family. Some fine examples may be 
seen in the Garter Plates of the 15th century. 


The wreath is placed over the helmet as a support 
for the crest. It is composed of two rolls of silk 
twisted together, and of the colours or metal of the 
arms. If one of the rolls be metal, the other must 
be of the principal colour of the arms ; but when there 
is no metal in the arms, then one of the rolls should be 
of the colour of the field, and the other part of the 
colour of the immediate charge. 

In the middle ages, no man, who was under the 
degree of a knight, had his crest set on a wreath. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 65 


The crest is the highest part of the ornaments of a 
coat of arms, and is placed on the wreath, unless it 
is issuant from a coronet, or standing on a chapeau, in 
either of which cases, the wreath is dispensed with. 
Crests appear on the helmets of Knights as early as the 
13th century ; and after the institution of the order of 
the Garter, and in imitation of King Edward the Third, 
who was the first king of England that bore a crest on 
his helmet, all knights companions of the order began to 
wear crests. This practice soon became more general, 
until at length they were assumed discretionally by 
all who considered themselves as legally entitled to 
bear arms. 


Badges were anciently placed on banners, ensigns, 
caparisons, and the breasts or shoulders of private 
soldiers, servants, and attendants; and that without 
any wreath, or other thing, under them. They were 
much worn from the reign of King Edward the First, 
until that of Queen Elizabeth, when they grew into 

Gerard Leigh says, the badge was not placed on a 
wreath in the time of Henry the Fifth ; and it never 
should be so borne. 

The Earl Delawarr bears the crampette and im- 
paled rose ; 'and the Lord Abergavenny bears the port- 
cullis and rose, which were ancient badges, PI. xv., 
n. 31 to 35 ; and refer, for further particulars, to 


66 Introduction to Heraldry. 


The motto, mot, word, legend, saying, or epigraph, 
added or appropriated to arms, not being hereditary, 
may be taken, changed, varied, or relinquished, when 
and as often as the bearer thinks fit ; and may, with 
impunity to the assumer, be the same as is used by 
other families. Many still in use have been originally 


Supporters are exterior ornaments, placed at the 
sides of the escutcheon to support it. Menestrier and 
others say, that supporters had their origin from tilts 
and tournaments, wherein the knights caused their 
shields to be carried by servants or pages, under the 
disguise of lions, bears, griffins, Moors, &c., who also 
held and guarded the escutcheons, which the knights 
were obliged to expose to public view some time before 
the lists were opened. 

Supporters have formerly been taken from such 
animals or birds as are borne in the shields, or had 
been introduced by the early engravers as ornaments 
on the seals, and at the present day they are occa- 
sionally chosen as bearing some allusion to the services 
of those whose arms they support. 

It does not appear to have been customary with our 
ancestors to change or alter their family supporters; 
neither is it a practice used in our days, except in some 
singular instances, and then it has been done under 
the sanction of the royal sign-manual, &c. 

The practice of the sovereigns of England granting 
supporters to the peers of each degree, seems to have 

Introduction to Heraldry. 67 

commenced in the reign of King Henry the Eighth, 
as did that of granting the like ornaments to the arms 
of the knights of the Garter and of the Bath. 

Supporters do not appear to the arms of the kings 
of England before the time of Eichard II. ; but a lion, 
or, and an eagle or falcon proper have been assigned 
to the arms of Edward III. The arms of Eichard II. 
are seen accompanied rather than supported by two 
white harts, collared and chained or; and in West- 
minster Hall, by angels. A lion and an antelope, 
and sometimes an antelope and a swan, have been 
assigned to Henry IV. and Henry V., but upon no 
very reliable authority. Examples of the arms of 
Henry VI. appear supported by two antelopes argent, 
also, others, with a lion for the dexter, and a pan- 
ther, antelope, or heraldic tiger for the sinister sup- 
porter. The arms of Edward IV. are painted in a 
contemporary MS. in the British Museum, supported 
by two white lions. He is said also to have used a 
lion, or, for the dexter and a bull sable for the sinister 
supporter. Of Edward V., there is no example. 
Eichard III. seems to have generally used two boars 
argent. Henry VII. a dragon gules and a greyhound 
argent, a lion, or, and a dragon gules, and occasionally 
two greyhounds argent. 

Henry VIII. generally a lion or, and a dragon gules. 
Sometimes the red dragon on the dexter side, and a 
white bull, greyhound, or cock on the sinister. 

Edward VI., lion or, and dragon gules. 

Mary, lion or, and dragon or, or a greyhound argent. 
When impaled with the arms of her husband, King 
Philip of Spain, the shield is supported by an eagle 
and a lion. 

68 Introduction to Heraldry. 

Elizabeth used the lion and dragon both or, and 
sometimes, in lieu of the dragon, the greyhound argent. 

On the accession of James L, one of the silver 
unicorns at that time used as supporters to the royal 
arms of Scotland supplanted the dragon and grey- 
hound of the Tudors, and since that period the sup- 
porters of the royal arms of the United Kingdoms have 
remained unchanged, being, dexter a lion rampant, 
gardant, or imperially crowned proper. Sinister, a uni- 
corn, argent, armed, unguled, and crined, or, gorged 
with a coronet composed of crosses-pattee, and fleurs- 
de-lis, having a chain affixed thereto, all of the last, 
passing between the forelegs, and reflexed over the back. 

The Nova-Scotia baronets are, by their patents of 
creation, allowed to carry supporters, notwithstanding 
that privilege was not granted to the English baronets, 
at the time of the institution of their dignity. Some of 
the English baronets now bear supporters, but it is by 
virtue of a royal licence obtained for that special purpose. 

The kings of arms in England are not authorized 
to grant supporters to any person under the degree of 
a knight Grand Cross of the Bath, unless they receive 
a royal warrant directed to them for that purpose ; 
and yet Lyon king of arms of Scotland may, by virtue 
of his office, grant supporters without such royal war- 
rant, within the kingdom of Scotland, and has fre- 
quently put that power in practice. 

The eldest sons of peers, above the degree of a 
baron, bear their fathers' arms and supporters with a 
label, and use the coronet belonging to their father's 
second title, if he has one ; but all younger sons bear 
their arms with proper differences, and use no coronet 
or supporters. 

Introduction to Heraldry. 69 

p^atcjjments. p L . xx. 

By the following rules may be known, upon sight 
of any hatchment, what the person was when living, 
whether a private gentleman, or a nobleman ; whether 
a married man, bachelor, or widower; a married 
woman, maid, or widow, &c. 


When a bachelor dies, his arms and crest are painted 
single or quartered, but never impaled ; the ground of 
the hatchment under the shield is all black. 


When a maiden dies, her arms (but no crest) must be 
placed in a lozenge, and may be single or quartered, 
with the ground under the escutcheon all black, as the 


When a married man dies, his arms are impaled 
with his wife's; the ground of the hatchment under 
his side of the shield in black, the ground under his 
wife's side in white ; the black side signifies the hus- 
band to be dead, and the white side denotes the wife to 
be living. 


When a married woman dies, her arms are impaled 
with her husband's (but no crest) ; the ground of the 
hatchment under her side of the shield is black, that 
of her husband white ; which signifies the wife to be 
dead, and the husband living. 

70 Introduction to Heraldry. 


When a widower dies, his arms are impaled with 
those of his deceased wife, with his crest ; the ground 
of the hatchment to be all black. 


When a widow dies, her arms are impaled with her 
husband's in a lozenge (but no crest) ; the ground of 
the hatchment to be all black. 

When a man is the last of a family, the death's head 
supplies the place of a crest, denoting that death has 
conquered all. 

When a woman is the last of a family, her arms are 
placed in a lozenge, with a death's head on the top. 


The peer is distinguished by his coronet and sup- 

The baronet by his peculiar badge. 

The knight-companion by the motto of his order. 

The bishop by the mitre. 



THE revival of tlie various styles of architecture, 
which prevailed in Britain from the Norman Conquest 
to the reign of James the First, has rendered the study 
of the heraldic ornaments, which formed so prominent 
a feature in the ecclesiastical structures of the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries, an object of interest to 
all engaged in the erection or decoration of churches 
or other public buildings ; particularly as a taste pre- 
vails for that style of architecture where heraldic 
figures were most lavishly applied in external and 
internal decoration. 

Those who assert that Heraldry as a science was 
little known previous to the Crusades, are in some 
degree borne out in their statements, by the total 
absence of heraldic ornament in the ecclesiastical and 
castellated structures erected during the eleventh and 
twelfth centuries, in the Anglo-Norman style of archi 
tecture. That this omission was not caused by the 
inability of the sculptors of that period, is proved by 
the elaborate carvings exhibited in the semicircular 
doorways and windows, the highly wrought and diver- 
sified capitals, to which may be added the sculptured 

72 Heraldry, in 

figures which, may be seen at the present time at 
IfHey, Malmesbury, and many other places. Heraldic 
ornaments formed no part of the decoration of the 
buildings first erected in the Lancet or Early English 
style of architecture ; but at a later period, when this 
style of building became more extended, and the simple 
pointed or lancet-shaped windows were superseded by 
the introduction of windows divided by mullions, and 
other deviations from the original simplicity of this 
beautiful style of architecture, Heraldic ornaments were 
introduced. The large shields on the side walls of the 
nave of Westminster Abbey, erected during the reign 
of Henry III., A.D. 1249, may be cited as one of the 
early introductions of Heraldry as an adjunct to 

When the Early English style had become so altered 
by the introduction of exuberant ornament, and by 
large pointed arched windows divided by mullions, 
terminating in flowing tracery filling up the heading 
of the windows, by an almost infinite variety of graceful 
curves, the boldness and elegance of the embellish- 
ments introduced into the structures erected about the 
time of Edward III., A. D. 13271377, demanded a 
distinct title; and is now designated the Decorated 
style of architecture. 

In this splendid era of English architecture, Heraldry 
became a distinguished feature, particularly in its 
application to sepulchral monuments. One of the 
earliest and most beautiful altar tombs erected in 
the Decorated style is that of Queen Eleanor, the 
lamented consort of Edward the First, in St. Edward's 
Chapel, Westminster. Each side of the tomb is divided 
by small buttresses into six compartments, having 

Conjunction with Architecture. 


angular canopies ornamented with crockets and finials ; 
each compartment contains a shield of arms, sculptured 
as suspended from an oak or vine branch : a repre- 
sentation of one compartment is given in the annexed en- 
graving. The charges on the 
shields, which are repeated 
alternately, are those of Eng- 
land, three lions passant- 
gardant, Castile and Leon 
quarterly ; first and fourth, a 
castle, and second and third ? 
a lion rampant. This was the 
paternal shield of arms of the 
deceased Queen, which she in- 
herited from her father, Fer- 
dinand the Third, who quartered the arms of two king- 
doms, viz., Castile and Leon, in one shield. This is said 
to be the earliest . instance of two coats of arms being 
borne quarterly ; and the example was followed by Ed- 
ward the Third, when he quartered the arms of France 
with those of England the third shield for Ponthieu, 
viz., three bendlets within a bordure. These Heraldic 
symbols sufficiently declare to posterity the title and 
connexions of the deceased Queen, and supply the 
place of a long pompous inscription. 

During the reign of Edward the Third, chivalry, 
and, consequently, Heraldry, became the ruling fashion 
of the time. Every person who could rank above a 
yeoman desired to obtain those heraldic honours 
which could alone be granted by the Earl Marshal 
and the King-at-Arms. Those who were allowed 
to bear coats of arms sought every opportunity of 
displaying them on their banners, habiliments, and 


Heraldry, in 

the furniture of their apartments. The contributor to 
the foundation of a religious establishment was in 
some measure rewarded by 
having his arms emblazoned 
in a conspicuous part of the 
building ; and these assumed 
the appearance of architec- 
tural ornaments by filling up 
the spandrils or spaces be- 
tween the arches (as repre- 
sented in the annexed engrav- 
ing), which would otherwise have presented too much of 
the plain surface of the wall. Shields of arms are thus 
disposed in the nave and transepts of York Minster. 
In some instances, Heraldic orna- 
ments formed part of the deco- 
rations introduced in the capi- 
tals. The annexed cut is taken 
from a column in Bloxham Church, 
Oxon. It is said to represent 
Saint George. The cross is em- 
blazoned on his shield, and on the pennon attached to 
the lance. The arms in the annexed cut form part of 
the pierced work that supports the 
transom beams in the Chapter-house 
of Exeter Cathedral. 

Not only did the shields and the 
charges upon them become architec- 
tural ornaments, but the badges and 
devices of the king and nobility were 
admitted in the decoration of corbels, cornices, and 

The recumbent figures of knights upon altar-tombs 

Conjunction with Architecture. 75 

were generally sculptured in complete armour, with 
their arms emblazoned on the shield. In some in- 
stances, the arms are emblazoned in their proper tinc- 
tures and metals. The sculptured figure ascribed to 
Geoffrey Magnaville, Earl of Essex, in the Temple 
Church, is said to be the earliest instance of the arms 
being placed in the shield ; but there exists much dif- 
ference of opinion both as to date and identity of this 

The splendid windows of the Decorated style were 
filled with stained and painted glass, which admitted 
shields of arms to be emblazoned in their proper 
colours. Whole-length and kneeling male and female 
figures are frequently seen in ancient windows. The 
figure of the knight is usually depicted with his arms 
emblazoned on his surcoat or tabard; the dame or 
lady is frequently habited in garments bearing 
heraldic charges ; on the fore part of the close robe 
that covers her body was emblazoned her paternal 
arms, and the charges she was entitled to assume 
in her own right. This dress was called the 
kirtle. The mantle worn over her shoulders was 
considered typical of honour and protection, and on 
this garment the arms of her husband were em- 

We have now to glance at Heraldry as an adjunct 
to architecture, when the flowing tracery of the Deco- 
rated style gave place to the latest style of English 
architecture, now called the Perpendicular. This 
transition took place about the end of the fourteenth 
century. Heraldry before this period was only ad- 
mitted as a portion of the architectural ornament ; but, 
from the exuberant display of symbolic figures, and 

76 Heraldry, in 

the almost entire absence of other ornaments, it became 
an integral part of the architectural character ; and it 
has always been a matter of surprise, when looking at 
the stately buildings erected under the auspices of the 
Tudors, that the architecture of this period did not 
obtain the title of the Heraldic style. England con- 
tains two buildings in the Perpendicular style, which 
for architectural splendour are unequalled in Europe, 
or perhaps in the world. One is King's College Chapel, 
at Cambridge ; the other Henry the Seventh's Chapel, 
at Westminster. It is not our province to dilate upon 
the beauties of either of these splendid structures, 
farther than to notice the gorgeous display of Heraldry 
that pervades them. 

The west and south entrances of King's College 
Chapel are enriched with bold carvings of the badges 
of King Henry the Seventh, in whose reign they were 
erected ; but, as the Eoyal badges will again come 
under notice, when describing the chapel at West- 
minster, we will at once enter King's College Chapel ; 
and no person ever glanced his eye over the wonders 
around and above him, without being awe-struck at the 
daring of the architect that could plan, and the builders 
that could erect such a structure. The whole of the 
lower part of the Chapel beneath the windows is 
divided into panels, and every panel is filled with the 
arms of the king who erected the building. The en- 
graving on p. 77 is a representation of his arms and sup- 
porters : they fill three large compartments under 
each window. The immense pendants hanging from 
the gorgeous roof are ornamented with the rose, the 
royal badge of both the king and queen at this period. 

The gateway towers of Christ's and St. John's 

Conjunction with Architecture. 77 

Colleges have a noble display of Heraldry in the arms, 
supporters, badges, &c., of their 
noble foundress, Margaret, 
Countess of Eichmond. 

The entrance gateway tower 
of Trinity College was origin- 
ally the entrance to King's 
Hall, founded by Edward III., ARM3 O F HEMU- vm. 
in 1337, and is decorated with the arms of that 
monarch and his six sons, a blank shield representing 
William of Hatfield, who died in his infancy. Henry 
VIII. refounded the college, and changed its name, 
and as his statue occupies a niche over these arms, 
they have sometimes been erroneously assigned to him 
and his family. 

We have now to notice Henry the Seventh's Chapel 
at Westminster. Mr. Brayley, in his history of this 
splendid structure, observes : " There is no other edifice 
in the kingdom in which external ornaments have been 
spread over its surface with such exuberant luxuriance. 
It would seem, indeed, as though the architect had 
intended to give to stone the character of embroidery, 
and inclose its walls within meshes of lacework : with 
the exception of the plinth, every part is covered by 
sculptural decorations ; the buttress towers are crested 
by ornamental domes, and enriched by niches and 
elegant tracery. The cross springers are crossed with 
airy forms, and the very cornices and parapets are 
charged even to profusion with armorial cognizances." 
If we were to notice the application of the arms, badges, 
animals, &c., which decorate the exterior of this 
building, it would occupy a much larger volume than 
the one that contains these brief remarks. We must, 

78 Heraldry, in 

therefore, proceed to the interior ; and we are arrested 
on our very entrance to this gorgeous temple by the 
display of Heraldic devices on the brazen gates. The 
central gates are divided into sixty-eight perforated 
compartments of an oblong figure, each of which con- 
tains a badge of different members of the Houses of 
York and Lancaster. Among others is the well-known 
badge of Edward the Fourth, viz., the falcon with an 
open fetter-lock, the portcullis chained and crowned, 
three fleurs-de-lis, a root of daisies intersecting a coronet ; 
the letters H. R. in a knot : but we dare not loiter at 
the entrance. On each side of the Chapel are the 
elegantly-carved stalls, now appropriated to the Knights 
of the Bath, each surmounted by a canopy of delicate 
tabernacle-work, no two being alike. The helmets, 
swords, and banners of the knights would add to the 
splendour of any other place, but here appear mean 
compared to the gorgeous architecture above and 
around them. The cornices are formed by demi- 
angels, supporting the royal badges. Dragons, grey- 
hounds, and lions, supporting shields, intermixed with 
beautiful foliage, form the ornaments of the arches of 
the ceiling, filled up with fan-tracery, from which hang 
pendants, &c. 

Following are representations of some of the Royal 
badges found in this Chapel : 

1. The badge of York the white rose 
crowned. In some instances, this rose is 
parted per pale argent and gules, showing 
the union of the houses of York and Lan- 
caster; the latter having adopted the red 
rose as its badge. 

Conjunction with Architecture. 79 

The fleur-de-lis crowned the badge of 

The portcullis crowned and chained 
the ancient badge of the Beauforts; used 
by Henry the Seventh, as a descendant 
from that family. 

The letters H. E. in a knot is 
worked into the open work of the 
compartments of the centre gates of 
the Chapel, and also in the sculptured 
cornices. Knots were frequently used 
as badges to distinguish different fami- 
lies : see PI. xv., No. 31 to 35. 

The Broom - plant 
planta-genista was the 
badge of the Plantagenets, 
in allusion to their name. 
The annexed example is 
from the cornice in West- 
minster Hall. 
King's College Chapel, and the Chapel at West- 
minster, were both completed in the reign of Henry 
the Eighth, and were the last efforts of English Pointed 

80 Heraldry, $c. 

architecture. The Eeformation put a stop to archi- 
tectural splendour in the construction of buildings for 
divine worship, and Heraldry no longer held its place 
in connection with architecture. The discovery of the 
art of printing had enabled the publishers to produce 
translations of the classic authors. The architecture 
of Greece and of Rome, in addition to their inherent 
beauty, had all the charms of novelty. English archi- 
tecture was neglected ; and the mansions of the nobility 
and gentry erected during the reign of Elizabeth, all 
show the hold that the classic orders had obtained at 
that time, though the builders were unacquainted with 
the means of applying them correctly. By the acci- 
dental mixture of the panelled work of the Tudors 
with the Greek columns and entablatures, producing 
that style of building called Elizabethan, Heraldry 
was partially admitted into the heterogeneous yet 
picturesque masses erected during the reign of the 
Virgin Queen and her successor. Inigo Jones and Sir 
Christopher Wren, by introducing the classic orders in 
their purity and beauty, put an end to the incongruities 
of the Elizabethan style ; and from this period to the 
latter end of the reign of George the Third, churches, 
palaces, and public buildings, that had any pretensions 
to architectural elegance, were all erected in the classic 

Architects of the present day prove, by many of 
their works, that they have caught the spirit of the 
ancient masters, and heraldry has again become an 
important adjunct to architecture : it is especially 
noticeable in the decorative features of Sir Charles 
Barry's New Palace of Westminster. 


l^fctionarg of 


A. The heraldic abbreviation of ARGENT. AB. is 
never used, as it is liable to be mistaken for Az. 
(Plates xv. & xvii.) 

ABASED, or ABAISSE, signifies that a chevron, fess, or 
other ordinary, is placed lower than its usual position. 

ABATEMENTS are certain marks of disgrace, added to 
arms, for some dishonourable action committed by the 
bearer ; but as there is now not an instance of such 
dishonourable bearings, we shall not insert them ; 
especially as a person not being obliged to make use 
of arms, it cannot be supposed that any one would 
voluntarily exhibit a mark of infamy to himself and 

ACCOMPANIED. Sometimes used for between, as a cross 
accompanied by four crescents. 

ACCOSTED signifies side by side, as Guillim blazons 
the arms of Harinan ; viz. Azure, a chevron, between six 
rams, accosted, counter-tripping, two, two, and two. 
See PI. ix., n. 10. 

ACCRUED, full grown ; applied to trees. 

ACHIEVEMENT (French achevement, the performance of 
an action, achever, to perform), the escutcheon contain- 
ing the ensigns armorial granted to any man for the 
performance of great actions. This word is corrupted 
to HATCHMENT. Vide p. 69. 


82 Dictionary [ACO-ANC. 

ACORNED. This term is for an oak-tree, or branch, 
with acorns on it. 


ADDORSED, ADOSSE, or ADOSSED, signifies turned back 
to back. PI. ix. n. 7. Two lions rampant addorsed. 

ADUMBRATION is the shadow only of any bearing, 
outlined and painted of a colour darker than the field. 

AFFRONTE, front-faced, full-faced ; as, a savage's head 
affronte. PI. XL., n. 24. This term is also occasionally 
used in the same sense as gardant ; as, a lion sejant 

AISLE, winged, or having wings. 

A LA CUISSE (French), at the thigh : erased or couped 
a la cuisse. 

ALANT, a mastiff-dog with short ears. It was one of 
the supporters to the arms of Lord Dacre. 

ALLERION is an eagle without beak or feet. PI. vm., 
n. 6. 

ALTERNATE, ALTERNATELY, by turns, one after another, 
applying to the positions of quarterings, &c., that suc- 
ceed one another by turns. 

AMBULANT, walking ; the same as passant. 

AMETHYST, the name of a precious stone of a violet 
colour, formerly used in blazoning the arms of peers 
instead of purpure. 


ANCHOR is the emblem of Hope, and taken for such 
in a spiritual as well as a temporal sense ; hope being, 
as it were, the anchor which holds us firm to our faith 
in all adversities. When used as a bearing, it is drawn 
without a cable, unless it be mentioned in the blazonry. 
PL xxvii., n. 10. 

ANCHORED, or ANCRED, a cross so termed ; as the four 

ANG-ARC.] of Technical Terms. 83 

extremities of it resemble the fluke of an anchor. 
PI. xxxvi., n. 33. 

ANGLES, two angles interlaced saltierwise ; at each 
end an annulet. PI. XL., n. 3. Tliree pairs of these are 
borne by the name of Wastley. 


ANNODATED, another term for nowed; bent in the 
form of the letter S. The serpents round the caduceus 
of Mercury may be said to be annodated. 

ANNULET, a ring. Leigh supposes annulets to be 
rings of mail, which was an armour .of defence long 
before the harness of steel was invented. An annulet 
is the mark of difference assigned to the fifth son. 
PI. vii., n. 5. 

ANSHENT, or ANCIENT, a small flag or streamer, set up 
on the stern of a ship, or on a tent. The guidon used 
at funerals was also called an anshent. 

ANTE, or ENTE, ingrafted, or pieces let one into 
another, like dovetail. See PL xix., n. 7. 

ANTELOPE is an animal of the deer kind ; his horns 
are almost straight, tapering gradually from his head 
up ; a long and slender neck, feet, legs, and body, like 
a deer. PI. vii., n. 21, and n. 22, is termed an heraldic 

ANVIL, the iron block used by smiths, is represented 
in heraldry as PL xxx., n. 6. Party per chevron, argent 
and sable, three anvils counter changed ; name, Smith, of 
Abingdon, Berks. 

APAUMEE is the hand open, with the full palm 
appearing, the thumb and fingers at full length. See 
PL xxxv., n. 32 and 33. 

ARCHDUKE'S CROWN. A circle of gold, adorned with 
eight strawberry-leaves, and closed by two arches of 

84 Dictionary [ARC-ARK. 

gold set with pearls, meeting in a globe crossed, like 
the emperor's. The cap scarlet. PL XLV., n. 16. 

ARCH, as in architecture, is borne in Heraldry either 
double or single, and should be drawn on, or supported 
by pillars ; see PI. XLI., n. 3. 

ARCHED, or ARCHY, bowed or bent in the form of an 

ARGENT is the French word for silver, and in Heraldry 
is white : in heraldic sketches it is abbreviated to A. 
Silver was formerly used, but from its soon turning 
black, white was substituted. PI. n. 

ARM. This part of the human body is frequently 
and variously borne, both as a charge and for a crest ; 
as, an arm erect, couped at the elbow. PI. XL., n. 17. 

Arm in armour, embowed proper, couped at the shoulder, 
grasping an arrow. PL XL., n. 22. TJiree dexter arms 
conjoined at the shoulders, and flexed in triangle, with the 
fists clenched. PL XL., n. 2. Two arms in armour, em- 
bowed, supporting a pheon. PL XL., n. 23. 

ARMED signifies the horns, hoofs, beak, or talons, of 
any beast or bird of prey (being their weapons), which, 
when borne of a different tincture from that of their 
bodies, are described as being armed so and so. 

ARMING BUCKLE, a buckle in the shape of a lozenge. 
See PL xxvui., n. 9. 

ARRACHE, the French term for ERASED. 

ARRONDIE signifies round or circular. See PL 
xxxvn., n. 31. 

ARROWS are frequently used in heraldry, and are 
usually borne barbed and flighted, i. e. feathered. See 
one, PL xxiv., n. 8. In English heraldry (it is exactly 
the reverse in French) the arrow is always represented 
with its barb or point downwards, unless otherwise 

ASC-ATT.] of Technical Terms. 85 

expressed. Arrows, when in bundles or parcels, are 
usually termed sheaves, and are understood, unless a 
greater number be mentioned, to consist of three only, 
one in pale (upright), and two others in saltier (cross- 
ing it), bound together, or banded. It is not un- 
common, however, to have five or seven in a sheaf; but 
the number, if more than three, must be specified. 

ASCENDANT, rising, or issuing upward ; sometimes 
applied to smoke, flame, rays, or beams. 

ASPERSED, by some authors used instead of strewed or 

Ass (the) is frequently borne in heraldry. Pl.xxvi., 
n. 7. Argent, a fess between three asses passant, sable ; 
name, Askewe. 

Assis signifies sitting, or sejant : the example is a 
lion assis affronte, or sejant gardant. PI. xxxi., n. 6. 

ASTEROIDS, stars resembling planets : see ESTOILES. 

ASSURGENT, rising out of the sea. 

ASTROLABE, an instrument for taking the altitude of 
the sun or stars at sea. 


AT BAT. A stag at bay, is used to express the posi- 
tion of a stag when standing on the defensive, with his 
head downwards, to meet the onset of dogs and hunts- 

ATHELSTAN'S CROSS. Party per saltire, gules and 
azure, on a besant, a cross botonne or. Arms invented by 
later heralds for King Athelstan, who expelled the 
Danes, subdued the Scots, and reduced this country to 
one monarchy. PI. xxxix., n. 14. 

ATTIRED, a term used when speaking of the horns of 
a stag, buck, goat, or ram, &c. When of different tinc- 
tures from their bodies, it must be mentioned. 

86 Dictionary [ATT-BAD. 

ATTIKES, a .term for the horns of a stag or buck : 
see the attires of a stag affixed to the scalp. PI. xxxi., 
n. 33. 

AVELLANE, a cross, so called because the quarters of 
it resemble a filbert-nut. PL vi., n. 7. 

AUGMENTATIONS signify particular marks of honour, 
granted by the sovereign for some heroic or meritorious 
act. They are usually borne either on an escutcheon, 
or a canton, as by the baronets of England. See PL XLL, 
n. 15. When augmentations are borne on a chief, 
fess, canton, or quarter, the paternal coat keeps its 
natural place, and is blazoned first. See the arms of 
Manners. PL XL, n. 3. 

AURE, dropped with gold ; the same as Guttee d'or. 

AYLETS, or sea-swallows, represented sable, beaked 
and legged, gules ; some term them Cornish choughs. 

AZUEE is the colour blue, and in engraving this 
colour is expressed by horizontal lines from the dexter 
to the sinister side of the shield. To avoid mistaken 
in the abbreviations of Argent and Azure, the letter B 
is always used to signify the latter. (See Plates n., 

XV., XVII.) 

BADGE. A device or cognizance embroidered 
upon the sleeves of servants and followers, or on the 
backs and breasts of the soldiery and yeomen of the 
guard, &c. 

King Henry II. is said to have first used a badge in 
this country. It is stated to have been an escarlunde, the 
cognizance of the House of Anjou, he being the son of 
the Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I., and of 
Plantagenet, Earl of Anjou, but there is no contem- 
porary authority for it. A star between the horns of a 
crescent is seen upon the great seals of Richard I., 

BAD.] of Technical Terms. 87 

John, and Henry III., a rose or, stalked proper is 
attributed to Edward I. A castle is seen on the great 
seal of Edward II. Edward III. used for a badge, 
rays of the sun descending from clouds argent, also 
an ostrich feather all gold. His son, Edward the Black 
Prince, bearing it argent and John of Gaunt ermine. The 
badge of Eichard II. was a white hart, lodged, with a 
crown round his neck, and chained, or ; he bore, also, the 
sun in his splendour. Henry IV. bore, on a sable 
ground, three ostrich feathei-s, erm. ; also a fox's tail 
dependant, ppr. He also bore the red rose, which he 
inherited from his grandfather, Henry, first Duke of 
Lancaster. In his single combat with Mowbray, Duke 
of Norfolk, he exhibited the swan and antelope, while 
the Duke had mulberry-leaves for his badge, in allusion 
to his name of Mowbray. The badges of Henry V. were 
a burning cresset and a fleur-de-lis crowned. Henry VI, 
chose a panther, semee of roundles, and also two 
ostrich feathers in saltier. Edward IV. took the white 
rose, to which, after the battle of Mortimer's Cross, 
where he thought he saw three suns conjoined, he 
added golden rays. Another badge of this monarch was 
a falcon in a fetterlock. Eichard III. used the white 
rose in the sun, in imitation of his brother, and a white 
boar. Henry VII. adopted the portcullis of the House 
of Lancaster, and a rose, per pale white and red : after- 
wards, he placed the white rose within the red one. 
Henry VIII. continued this badge ; but with him the 
party-coloured rose was frequently rayonnee and 
crowned. Queen Elizabeth took a phoenix in flames, 
with the motto, semper eadem. Her other badge was a 
falcon oi', crowned or, holding a sceptre of the second, 
and standing on the stump of a tree, between two 

88 Dictionary [BAD. 

growing branches of white and red roses ; which badge 
had been given to her mother, Anne Boleyne, by 
Henry VIII. 

Among the most celebrated of the badges borne by 
nobles, was the bear and ragged staff (which still exists 
as an inn sign) of the great Earl of Warwick, 
derived from the Beauchamps. The white hart of 
Eichard II., and the silver swan of the House of Lan- 
caster, are also still frequently met with as signs to 
inns, though their origin is seldom thought of. Few of 
the ancient cognisances are now generally remembered, 
except the roses of York and Lancaster, and the three 
feathers borne in a coronet by the Princes of Wales 
since the reign of Henry VIII. ; which latter have, 
without interruption, continued from the time of 
their first assumption to be a favourite ornament of 

The Badge of England (proper) is a rose, white and 
red, ensigned with the royal crown. 

The Badge of Scotland is a thistle, ensigned with the 
royal crown. 

TJie Badges of Ireland are, 1. A harp or, stringed 
or, ensigned with the royal crown : 2. The trefoil or 
shamrock, similarly ensigned. 

All of these may be said to be the badges of the 
United Kingdom, and are now represented at PI. XLIII., 
n. 1, conjointly. 

The Badge of Wales is a dragon passant, wings ele- 
vated, gu., on a mount vert. It was first adopted by 
King Henry VII. 

The Badge of Ulster (which is the distinguishing 
mark borne in the paternal coat of English baronets, 
commonly called " the bloody hand " in the arms of 

BAD-BAN.] of Technical Terms. 89 

baronets,) is on a shield, or canton, argent, a sinister 
hand erect and apaumee, gu. 

Tlie Badge of Nova Scotia is, or, a saltier, az., there- 
on an escutcheon of the arms of Scotland, ensigned 
with an imperial crown, and encircled with the motto, 
Fax mentis honestce gloria. 

BADGER. Otherwise called a brock, is borne as a 
crest by several families, as a play upon their name ; 
as Broke, Brook, Brooks, Brokelsby, Badger, &c. 
See PI. xxx., n. 13. 

BAG OF MADDER. This is a charge in the dyers' 
arms. PI. xxxviir., n. 1. 

BAILLONNE. A term used to express a lion rampant, 
holding a staff in his mouth. PI. xxxii., n. 15. 

BALISTA. An engine used by the ancient Greeks and 
Romans for throwing stones at the time of a siege. It 
is otherwise called a swepe, and is represented as en- 
graved. PL xxxiv., n. 17. 

BALL TASSELLED, PI. xxx., n. 12. Argent, a chevron, 
between three balls sable, tasselled or ; name, Ball, of 

BALL, fired proper. See FIRE-BALL. 

BANDE, a French term for bend, implying the bend 

BANDED : when anything is tied round with a band 
of a different tincture from the charge, as a garb, wheat- 
sheaf, or sheaf of arrows, it is said to be banded ; for 
example, A garb azure, banded or. 

BANDEROLLE, a streamer, or small flag, affixed by lines 
or strings, immediately under the crook on the top of 
the staff of a crosier, and folding over the staff. 

BANNER, a square flag, standard, or ensign, carried at 
the end of a lance. 

90 Dictionary [BAN-BAB. 

BANNER, disveloped. This term is used for an ensign, 
or colours, in the army, being open and flying; as 
PI. xxv., n. 1. 

BAB is less than the fess, and is a diminution, con- 
taining a fifth part of the field, and is borne in several 
parts of the field ; whereas the fess is confined to the 
centre. PI. iv., n. 14. 

BAEBED. The green leaves or petals which appear on 
the outside of a full-blown rose are in heraldry called 
barbs, and are thus blazoned : a rose, gu., barbed and 
seeded ppr. 

BARBED ARROW, an arrow whose head is pointed and 

BARBED AND CRESTED ; a term occasionally used for 
the comb and gills of a cock, if of a different tincture 
from the body; but the usual term is combed and 

BARBED, or BARBEE, a cross so termed, as its extre- 
mities are like the barbed irons used for striking fish. 
PI. xxxvii., n. 14. 

BAR-GEMEL, from the Latin gemelli, twins, signifies a 
double bar, or two bars placed near and parallel to each 
other. PI. vii., n. 16. 

BARON and FEMME is used in blazoning the arms of 
a man and his wife marshalled together side by side. 
Baron expresses the husband's side of the shield, which 
is the dexter ; femme, the sinister. See PL XL., n. 3. 

and PI. XLIIL, n. 10. 

BARNACLE, a large water-fowl resembling a goose ; 
and by the Scots called a Cleg Goose. PI. xxv., n. 11. 
The barnacle has a flat broad bill, with a hooked 

BAR-BAS.] of Technical Terms. 91 

point ; the fore-part of the head is white, with a bead 
of black between the eyes ; the neck and fore-part of 
the breast are black, the belly is white and brown, the 
thighs blackish, the back black and brown, the tail 
black : the wings black, brown, and ash colour. Argent, 
a fess, between three barnacles, sable ; name, BernaJce, of 

BARNACLES, an instrument which farriers fix to the 
upper lip of a horse, to keep the animal quiet while 
they bleed, or perform any other operation. PI. xxxiv., 
n. 35. Argent, three barnacles, gules ; name, Barnack, of 

BABRULET is a diminutive, and the fourth of the bar, 
or twentieth part of the field. PI. iv., n. 16. 


BARRY is a field divided by horizontal lines into four, 
six, or more equal parts counterchanged, and is termed 
Barry of six, eight, ten, or twelve ; it being necessary 
to specify the number. PI. v., n. 19. Barry of six, or, 
and azure ; name, Constable. 

BARRY-BENDY is a field equally divided into four, six, 
or more equal parts by lines, from the dexter chief to 
the sinister base, and from side to side interchangeably 
varying the tinctures. PI. xxxvm., n. 20. 

BARRY-BENDY SINISTER, by some authors termed 
Barry indented. 

BARRY-INDENTED, or barry of six, argent, and sable 
indented one in the other; name, Gise. PI. xxxviu., 
n. 19. 

BARRY-PILY of eight pieces gules, and or ; name, 
Holland. PI. v., n. 20. 

BASE is the bottom or lower part of the shield, 
marked with the letters G, H, I, on the diagram, page 10. 

92 Dictionary [BAS-BAT. 

IN BASE is the position of anything placed in the 
lower part of the shield. 

BASILISK, an imaginary animal, represented like the 
fictitious heraldic cockatrice, and with the head of a 
dragon at the end of its tail. It is called the Amphisien 
Cockatrice., from having two heads. PL xxv., n. 13. 


BASNET. The name of a head-piece worn in the 14th 
and 15th centuries, sometimes without and sometimes 
under the heaume or helmet. Argent, a chevron, gules, 
between three helmets proper ; name, Basnet. 



BATTERING-RAM. An ancient engine made of large 
pieces of timber, fastened together with iron hoops, and 
strengthened at one end with an iron head, shaped and 
horned like that of a ram, from whence it took its name. 
It was hung up by two chains, and swung forwards and 
backwards, by numbers of men, to beat down the walls 
of a besieged town or city. PI. XLI., n. 7. Argent, 
three battering-rams, barwise proper, headed azure, armed 
and garnished or ; name, Bertie. 

BATTLE-AXE was a weapon anciently used in war, 
having an axe on the one side, whence it takes the 
name, and a point on the other ; as also a point at the 
end, so that it could be used to thrust or cleave. PL 
xxvn., n. 21. Argent three battle-axes sable ; name, Gyves 
or Hall 

BATTLED ARRONDIE signifies the battlement of a town, 
&c., to be circular on the top. 

BATTLED-EMBATTLED is one battlement upon another, 
and is a line of partition. PL xxxv., n. 28. 

BATTON, BASTON, or BATON, signifying a staff or 

BEA-BEE.] of Technical Terms. 93 

truncheon, is generally used as a rebatement on coats 
of arms to denote illegitimacy. PI. iv., n. 12. It is 
also, however, frequently adopted as a crest, without 
any reference to illegitimacy ; as, an arm embowed, hold- 
ing a baton, and many others. 

BEACON. In ancient times, upon the invasion of an 
enemy, beacons were set on high hills, with an iron pot 
on the top, wherein was pitch, hemp, &c., which, when 
set on fire, alarmed the country, and called the people 
together. In the eleventh year of the reign of 
Edward III., every county in England had one. 
PL xxxiv., n. 16. 

Prior to King Edward, the fire-beacons were made 
of large stocks of wood. Sable, three beacons fired or, 
flames proper ; name, Dauntre. 

BEAKED. A term for the bills of birds, which, when 
borne of a different tincture from their bodies, are said 
to be beaked of this or that colour. 

BEAR, the well-known beast of prey so called, is com- 
mon in coats armorial and crests. PI. xxxi., n. 9. Or, 
a bear passant, sable ; name, Fitzourse. 

BEARING signifies any single charge of a coat of arms ; 
but if used in the plural, the word is understood to 
describe the whole coat armorial. See CHARGES. 

BEAVER, or VISOR, is that part of the helmet which 
defends the sight, and opens in the front of the helmet. 
BEAVER, an amphibious animal, noted for its extra- 
ordinary industry and sagacity, is naturally very fre- 
quently met with in heraldry. Argent, a beaver erected 
sable, devouring a fish proper, armed gules ; this coat 
is in a window of New-Inn Hall, London. PL xxvi., 
n. 9. 

BEE-HIVE and BEES. Bees are most wonderful and 

94 Dictionary [BEL-BEN. 

profitable insects ; they have two properties of the best 
kind of subjects ; they keep close to their king ; and 
are very industrious for their livelihood, expelling all 
idle drones. In heraldry they are much used, to re- 
present industry. Argent, a bee-hive beset with bees, 
diversely volant, sable ; name, Rooe. PI. xxvi., n. 21. 

BELFRY, that part of the steeple or tower of a church 
in which the bells are hung, is occasionally met with as 

BELLED, having bells affixed to some part. See the 
example. A hawk rising jessed and belled. PI. ix., n. 20. 

BELLOWS. This useful utensil, when borne in 
heraldry, is drawn erect, as represented PL xxx., n. 9. 

BELLS. Used as the proclaimers of joyful solemnity, 
and designed for the service of God, by calling the 
people to it, are in heraldry termed CHURCH- BELLS, to 
distinguish them from those which are tied to the legs 
of hawks or falcons. See PI. xxvm., n. 23. 

BEND, one of the honourable ordinaries, is formed by 
two diagonal lines drawn from the dexter chief to the 
sinister base, and contains the third part, if charged ; 
and uncharged, the fifth of the field. PI. iv., n. 5. 

BEND SINISTER is the same ordinary, but drawn from 
the sinister chief to the dexter base, or from left to right. 
PL iv., n. 10. 

PARTY PER BEND SINISTER, argent and gules. 
PL xxxix., n. 1. 

IN BEND is when things borne in arms are placed 
diagonally, from the dexter chief to the sinister base. 
See PL x., n. 18, and PL xi., n. 25. 


PER BEND is when the field, or charge, is equally 
divided by a line drawn diagonally from the dexter 

BEN-BIP.] of Technical Terms. 95 

chief to the sinister base ; party per bend, or and vert ; 
name, Hawley. PL in., n. 2. 

BENDLET, is one of the first of the diminutives of the 
bend, and is in size half the breadth of a bend. PL iv., 
n. 6. 

BENDY is when a field, or charge, is divided bendwise 
into four, six, eight, ten, or more equal parts diago- 
nally. Bendy of six, argent and azure ; name, John de 
St. Philibert. PL v., n. 18. A border bendy, argent and 
gules. PL xxxvm., n. 15. 

BESANTS, or BEZANTS, are roundlets of gold without 
any impression, so called from the ancient gold coin of 
Byzantium, now Constantinople (the value of one being 
375Z. sterling, according to Kent in his abridgment of 
Guillim), and supposed to have been introduced in 
arms by those who were in the Crusades. PL vni., n. 9. 

Similar figures, when party-coloured, or when the 
colour is not known, are called under the general term 
of roundles. 

BEZANTY CROSS, a cross composed of bezants. 
PL xxxvi., n, 18. Bezanty, or bezantee, is also a term 
when the field of the escutcheon, or any particular 
charge, is indiscriminately strewed with bezants, their 
number or position not being specified. 

BICAPITATED, having two heads. PL xxxn., n. 19. 

BICORPORATED, having two bodies. PL xxxii., n. 22. 

BILLETS are oblong squares, by some taken for pieces 
of wood, and by others supposed to be letters made up 
in that form. PL vni., n. 4. 

BILLETY signifies a field (charge or supporters) strewed 
with billets when they exceed ten, otherwise their 
number and position must be expressed. 

BIPARTED, so cut off as to form an indent showing 

96 Dictionary [BIE-BOL. 

two projections : differing from erased, which signifies 
torn off, and shows three jagged pieces. 

BIED-BOLT, a blunt-headed arrow used for shooting 
birds with a cross-bow, and variously borne with one, 
two, or three heads. PI. xxxiv., n. 26, 27. As the 
number of heads varies, it should always be specified 
when there are more than one. Gules, three bird-bolts, 
argent ; name, Bottlesham. Argent, three triple-headed 
bird-bolts, sable ; name, Risdon. 

BLADED. This term is for the stalk or blade of any 
kind of grain or corn, represented in arms, borne of a 
different colour from the ear, or fruit. 

BLAZON. A term derived from the German word 
Blasen, which signifies the blowing of a horn ; it was 
introduced in heraldry from an ancient custom of the 
heralds. It was the practice when knights attended 
jousts or tournaments, to blow a horn, announcing their 
arrival. This was answered by the heralds, who then 
described aloud, and recorded the arms, borne by each 
knight. Hence originated, it is presumed, the word 
BLAZON, or BLAZONRY, which signifies the describing 
in proper terms all that belongs to coats of arms. See 
EULES, &c. 

BLUE-BOTTLE is a flower of the cyanus. PI. xxv., 
n. 20. Argent, a chevron, gules between three blue-bottles 
or, slipped vert ; name, Cherley. 

BOAR. This animal, when used in heraldry, is 
always understood to be the wild boar, and is repre- 
sented as PI. xxxi., n. 20. Argent, a boar passant, gules, 
armed or ; name, Trewarthen. 

BoLT-iN-TuN is a bird-bolt in pale piercing through a 
tun, as PI. xxiv., n. 22 ; it is properly a rebus of the 
name Bolton, rather than a heraldic charge. 

BOL-BOT.] of Technical Terms. 97 

BOLTANT, or BOLTING, a term occasionally used to 
describe the position of hares or rabbits in springing 
forward when first disturbed from their burrows. 

BONNET, a cap of velvet worn within a coronet. 

BOKDEK, or BORDURE. Borders were anciently used 
for distinguishing one part of a family from the other, 
descended of one family and from the same parents. 
When used as a distinction of houses, the border must 
be continued all round the extremities of the field, and 
should always contain the fifth part thereof. PL v., n. 9. 

But, if a coat be impaled with another, either on the 
dexter or sinister side, and hath a border, the border 
must finish at the impaled line, and not be continued 
round the coat. See an example, PL XL., n. 14 ; also 
PL xxxix., n. 5. 

In Blazon, borders always give place to the chief, the 
quarter, and the canton: as, for example, argent, a 
border ingrailed gules, a chief azure : and, therefore, the 
chief is placed over the border, as the quarter and 
canton likewise are. In coats charged with a chief, 
quarter, or canton, the border goes round the field until 
it touches them, and there finishes ; but with respect 
to all other ordinaries, it passes over them. 


Border Enaluron .... 3 9 

Border Enurney .... 3 10 

Border Quarterly .... 3 11 

Border Verdoy .... 3 12 

Border Entoyre .... 3 13 

Border Diapered .... 3 14 

Border Bendy 3 15 

Boss of a bit, as borne in the arms of the Lorimers' 
or Bit-makers' Company. PL xxiv., n. 23. 

BOTEROLL, according to the French heralds, is a tag 


98 Dictionary [BOT-BRA. 

of a broadsword scabbard, and is esteemed an honour- 
able bearing. See PI. xxiv., n. 24. 

The crampette, which is the badge of the Right Hon. 
Earl Delawarr, is supposed by Edmondson to be meant 
for the same ornament of the scabbard. See the two 
examples, PI. xxiv., n. 20 and n. 24. 

BOTONNY, or BOTONE, a Cross. This term is given 
because its extremities resemble the trefoil. PL VL, n. 8. 

BOTTOM, a trundle or quill of gold thread. See 
TRUNDLE. Argent three bottoms, in fess gules, the thread 
or; name, Hoby, of Badland. See PI. xxv., n. 19. 

BOUECHIER KNOT is a knot of silk tied as the example, 
PI. xxxii., n. 32. This knot was a cognisance of Arch- 
bishop Bourchier, and a representation of it is still pre- 
served in several of the apartments of Knole House, in 
Kent, which was formerly the property and residence 
of the archbishop. 

BOWEN'S KNOT. See PI. xxxvni , n. 7. Gules, a 
chevron, between three such Jcnots, argent ; name, Bowen. 

Bows. See PI. xxxii., n. 29. Ermine three bows 
bent in pale gules ; name, Bowes. 

BRASSES are sepulchral engravings on large or small 
brass plates let into slabs in the pavement of ancient 
churches, portraying the effigies of illustrious persons ; 
the greater part of the figures as large as life. The 
various colours for the dresses, armours, and coats of 
arms, in many instances, were laid on in enamel ; the 
attitudes are well drawn ; and the lines of the dresses 
are made out with a precision which is truly surprising. 
We refer for proof to the abbey church of St. Alban's, 
and St. Margaret's church, King's Lynn. 

BRACED, fretted or interlaced, signifies figures of the 
same sort interlacing one another, as the example 

BRA-BRO.] of Technical Terms. 99 

Argent, three chevronels interlaced in base, gules. PI. xxxy. , 
n. 30. 

BEANCHES, slips and sprigs of shrubs, &c., frequently 
occur in coat armour. The slip should consist of three 
leaves ; the sprig, of five ; and the branch, if fructed, 
of four or if unfructed, of nine leaves. 

BRASSARTS, or BRASSETS, pieces of armour for the 


BRETESSE is embattled on both sides equal to each 
other. See an example, PI. XL., n. 6. 

BRIDGES, as borne in arms, are of various forms, 
depending chiefly on the number of arches, which 
should be particularly specified, as in the following 
example : Or, on a bridge of three arches in fess gules, 
masoned sable, the stream trans fluent proper, a fane argent; 
name, Trowbridge, of Trowbridge. This seems to have 
been given to the bearer as an allusion to his name, 
quasi Throughbridge, with respect to the current of 
the stream passing through the arches. PI. xvi., n. 22. 



BRISTLED, the term used in blazonry to express the 
hair on the neck and back of a boar. 

BROAD ARROW, differs from the pheon, by having 
the inside of its barbs plain, as PI. xxv., n. 21. 

BROAD AXE, as borne in arms, is represented, PL 
xxxii., n. 12. Gules three broad-axes, argent, a demi 
fleur-de-lis, joined to each handle within-side, or, between 
as many mullets pierced of the last ; name, Tregold. 

BROCHES are instruments used by embroiderers, and 
are borne in the arms of the Embroiderer's Company. 
PI. xxiv., n. 5. 

100 Dictionary [BRO-BUR. 

BROGUE, a kind of shoe, borne as depicted PI. xxxiv., 
n. 9. Gules, a chevron between three brogues or ; name, 




BUCKETS are used in heraldry of various forms, but 
most frequently as PI. xxiv., n. 7. Sable, a chevron 
between three well-buckets argent; name, Sutton. They 
are sometimes borne with feet, as the example, Argent, 
a well-bucket sable, bailed and hooped or; name, Pemberton, 
PI. xxxvi., n. 30. 


BUCKLES. The buckle of a military belt or girdle, 
is a bearing both ancient and honourable. See 
PI. xxvni., n. 9. The shape of buckles, as borne 
in a coat, must be described, whether oval, round, square, 
or lozengy, as they are various. 

BUFFALO, a species of wild bull. PI. xxxm., n. 14. 

BUGLE-HORN, or HUNTING HORN, is a frequent bear- 
ing in heraldry. When the mouth and strings of this 
instrument are of different tinctures from the horn ? 
then in blazon they must be named ; and when it is 
adorned with rings, then it is termed garnished. 
PL xxvii., n. 23. 

BULL (the) is common in coat armour. Ermine, a 
bull passant gules ; name, Bevile. 

BULL'S HEAD, caboshed. PL xxxi., n. 27. 

BUR, was a broad ring of iron, behind the hand, on 
the spears anciently used at til tings. 

BURGONET, a steel cap, formerly worn by foot soldiers 
in battle. PL xxv., n. 3. 

BURLING-IRON, an instrument used by weavers, and 

BUS-CAN.] of Technical Terms. 101 

borne in the arms of the Weavers' Company of Exeter. 
PI. xxv., n. 5. 

BUST, anronte, signifies the head, neck, and part of 
the shoulders, and the full face. See PI. XL., n. 24 ; 
also a bust, inp-ofile, PI. XL., n. 25. 

BUSTARD, a kind of wild turkey, rarely met with in 
England, and in heraldry depicted as PI. xxxin., n. 13. 

CABOSHED, or CABOSED (Spanish), is when the head 
of a beast is cut close off behind the ears, and full- 
faced, having no neck left to it. PI. rx., n. 18. 

CADENCY, distinction of houses. 


CALVARY, a CROSS, represents the cross on which 
our Saviour suffered on Mount Calvary, and is always 
set upon three steps, termed grieces. According to 
Morgan, the three steps signify the three qualities 
whereby we mount up to Christ, Faith, Hope, and 
Charity. See PI. xxxvi., n. 19. Gules, a cross on three 
grieces or ; name, Jones, of Denbighshire. 

CAMEL, the well-known animal so called. Azure, a 
camel argent; name, Camel. PI. xxxi., n. 23. 

PL xxv., n. 2. 

CANDLESTICK. This example is blazoned in the arms 
of the Founders' Company. A taper candlestick. See 
PI. xxxvu., n, 10. 

CANNETS, a term for ducks, when they are represented 
without beak or feet. See PI. vni., n. 5. Argent, a chevron 
gules, between three cannets sable ; name, Dubuisson. 

CANTON, so called, because it occupies but a corner 
of the field, is either dexter or sinister, and is the third 
of the chief. PI. vin., n. 24. Argent, a canton sable ; 
name, Sutton. 

102 Dictionary [CAN-GAS. 

CANTONNED, signifies a cross between four figures. 

CAP or BONNET. See PL xxxvi., n. 11. Argent, 
three such caps sable, banded or; name, Capper, of 

CAP OF MAINTENANCE or DIGNITY, is made of crimson 
velvet lined and turned up with ermine, worn by 
nobility: such a cap was sent by Pope Julius the 
Second, with a sword, to King Henry the Eighth ; 
and Pope Leo the Tenth gave him the title Defender 
of the Faith, for his writing a book against Martin 
Luther. PL XLIII., n. 13. 

CAPARISONED, the term used to describe a war-horse 
completely furnished for the field. 


CARDINAL'S HAT. Pope Innocent IV. ordained, that 
Cardinals should wear red hats, whereby he would 
signify that those that entered into that order ought 
to expose themselves, even to the shedding of their 
blood and hazard of their lives, in defence of ecclesi- 
astical liberty. Argent, a cardinal's hat, with strings 
pendent and plaited in knots, the ends meeting in base, 
gules; these are the arms of Sclavonia. PL xxvii., 
n. 11. 


CASTLE. Or, a castle triple-towered gules, the port 
displayed of the first, leared argent. PL xxxix., n. 19. 

Whatever tincture the castle is of, if the cement of 
the building is of another colour from the stones, then 
the building, being argent, is said to be masoned of such 
a colour, as sable, &c. When the windows and ports 
of castles are of a different tincture from the field and 
building, the windows and ports are supposed to be 
shut, and must be so expressed in the blazon j if the 

CAT-CHA.] of Technical Terms. 1 03 

windows and ports are of the tincture of the field, so 
that the field is seen through them, then they are sup- 
posed to be open ; if the port is in form of a portcullis, 
it is to be named in the blazon. Note. The difference 
between a tower and a castle is this : the tower stands 
without walls to its sides, but a castle extends from 
side to side, as the example. See a tower, PI. xxxix., 
n. 20, which points the difference. 

CAT. This domestic animal is used as a crest and 
supporter, but rarely as a bearing in arms. 

CAT-A -MOUNTAIN, a wild cat. PI. xxvi., n. 16. These 
cats being always painted gardant, the word gardant 
need not be used in the blazon. 


CATHERINE-WHEEL, so called from St. Catherine the 
Virgin (who suffered martyrdom in Alexandria under 
the Emperor Maximinus), who had her limbs broken in 
pieces by its iron teeth. PI. VIL, n. 17. Azure, a Cathe- 
rine-wheel argent ; name, Wegirton. 


CERCELEE, or RECERCELEE, (a CROSS,) signifies one 
circling, or curling at the ends, like a ram's horn. 
PI. xxxvi., n. 4. 

CHAINS are borne frequently and in various forms, 
especially as appendant to dogs and other animals. 
They are often, too, borne independent of any other 
charge : see, for instance, a circle of chains, PL xxx., 
n. 22. Or, as in the arms of Navarre, formerly 
quartered by the kings of France; " Na Varra," signi- 
fying a chain. PI. xxix., Fig. 12. 

CHAIN-SHOT. Some have taken this to be the head 
of a club called holy-water sprinkler, others to be balls 
of wildfire, generally supposed to be chain-shot, which 

104 Dictionary [CHA. 

is two bullets with a chain between them ; their use is, 
at sea, to shoot down yards, masts, or rigging of ships. 
Azure, three chain-shots or ; this coat was borne by the 
Earl of Cumberland, next to his paternal coat. PI. XLI., 
n. 1. 

CHAMBER-PIECE, a term for a short piece of ordnance, 
without a carriage. PI. xxiv., n. 6. 


CHAPEEON, or CHAPEKONE (French), a hood, and by 
metonymy applied to the little shields containing 
armorial bearings, placed on the heads of horses drawing 
hearses at pompous funerals. 

CHAPLET, a garland, or head-band of leaves and 
flowers. PL v., n. 8. A chaplet of roses, in heraldry, 
is always composed of four roses only, all the other 
parts being leaves. Argent, three chaplets vert; name, 
Richardson, of Shropshire. 

CHAPOUENET, a corruption of the French word, cha- 
peronet, which signifies a little hood. 

CHAEGES are all manner of figures or bearings what- 
soever, borne in the field of a coat of arms, which are 
by custom become peculiarly proper to the science. 

CHAEGED. Any ordinary or figure, bearing any 
other device upon it, is said to be charged therewith ; 
azure, a saltire argent, charged with another gules. PL XLI., 
n. 4. 

CHAELEMAGNE'S CEOWN. This crown, which is divided 
into eight parts, is made of gold, weighing fourteen 
pounds, and is still preserved at Nuremberg. PL XLV., 
n. 5. The fore part of the crown is decorated with 
twelve jewels, all unpolished. On the second quarter, 
on the right hand, is our Saviour sitting between two 
cherubs, each with four wings, whereof two point -up- 

CHE.] of Technical Terms. 105 

ward, and two downward ; and under, this motto, Per me 
lieges regnant. The third part on the same side has only 
gems and pearls. On the fourth part is King Hezekiah 
sitting, holding his head with his right hand ; and by 
his side Isaiah the prophet, with a scroll, whereon is 
this motto, Ecce adjiciam super dies tuos 15 annos : also 
over the heads of these figures, Isaias Propheta, Ezechias 
Rex. The fifth part, which is behind, contains jewels 
semee. The sixth part has the effigy of a king crowned, 
and a scroll in his hand, with these words, Honor 
Regis judicium diligit : and over his head, Rex David. 
The seventh part is only of gems ; but the eighth has 
a king sitting, with his crown upon his head, and on a 
scroll which he holds in both hands is this motto, 
Time Dominum, & Regem amato : as likewise over his 
head, Rex Solomon. 

On the top of this crown is a cross, the fore part of 
which contains seventeen jewels, and in the top of the 
cross are these words, IHS Nazarenus Rex Judceorum ; as 
also in the arch or semicircle, these, CHVONRADUS, 
AUG., which shows that the semicircle was added after 
Charlemagne's time, by the Emperor Conrad. 

CHECKY, or CHEQUE, is a term used when the field, or 
any charge, is composed of small squares of different 
tinctures alternately, as PL v., n. 22. 

CHERUB'S HEAD is a child's head between two wings 
displayed. See PI. xxxm., n. 2. 

CHESS-ROOK, a figure used in the game of chess. 
PI. VIL, n. 9, ermine, three chess-rooks, gules; name, 
Smert. See another shape, PI. XXXIIL, n. 3. 


CHEVRON is an ordinary representing the two rafters 

106 Dictionary [CHE-CHI. 

of a house, joined together in chief, and, descending in 
the form of a pair of compasses to the extremities of 
the shield, contains the fifth of the field. Gules, a 
chevron argent; name, Fulford. PI. iv., n. 17. Also 
PI. xxxix., n. 7 ; name, Twemlow. 

PER CHEVKON is when the field or charge is divided 
by such a line as helps to make the chevron, party per 
chevron, argent and vert, PL in., n. 4. 

CHEVRONEL is a diminutive of, and in size half, the 
chevron. PI. iv., n. 18. When there are more than 
one chevron on a coat, and placed at equal distances 
from each other, they should be called chevronels : but 
if they are placed in pairs, they are called couple-closes. 
Ermine, two chevronels azure ; name, Bagot. 

CHEVRONNY is the parting of a shield into several 
equal partitions chevronwise. See PI. XLI., n. 10. 


CHEVRONS COUCHED signifies lying side wise. PI. 
xxxvm., n. 16. 

CHEVRONS CONTREPOINT signifies standing one upon 
the head of another. PI. xxxvm., n. 17. 

CHIEF is an ordinary formed by a horizontal line, 
and occupies the upper part of the shield, containing 
in depth the third of the field : it is so termed because 
it has place in the chief or principal part of the 
shield. PI. iv., n. 1. 

IN CHIEF is a thing born in the chief part or top of 
the escutcheon. See PL XL, n. 2, viz., argent, a fess, 
in chief three lozenges sable ; name, Ashton. 

CHIMERA, a fabulous monster, feigned to have the 
head of a lion breathing flames, the body of a goat, 
and the tail of a dragon; because the mountain 
Chimaera, in Lycia, had a volcano on its top, and 

CHI-CIV.] of Technical Terms. 107 

nourished lions ; the middle part afforded pasture for 
goats, and the bottom was infested with serpents. PI. 
xxix., n. 9. 

CHIMERICAL. A term applied to such figures as have 
no other existence but in the imagination. See PI. 
XL., n. 20, T. 7, n. 22. n. 23, n. 24. 


CIMIEB, the French word for crest. 

CINQUEFOIL. The Five-leaved Grass, so called, which 
is a common bearing, usually drawn or engraved with the 
leaves issuing from a kind of ball as a centre point. PI. vi., 
n. 24. Or, a cinquefoil sable ; name, Brailford, of Derby. 

CIRCLE of CHAINS, PI. xxx., n. 22. 

of GOLD, PI. XXXVIIL, n. 9. 


Civic CROWN was a garland composed of oak-leaves 
and acorns, and given by the Komans as a reward to 
any soldier that saved the life of a Eoman citizen in 
an engagement. This was reckoned more honourable 
than any other crown, though composed of better 
materials. Plutarch says the reason why the branches 
of the oak should be made choice of before' all others 
is, that the oaken wreath being sacred to Jupiter, the 
great guardian of the city, they might think it the 
most proper ornament for him who preserved a citizen. 
The most remarkable person upon record for obtaining 
these rewards, was one C. Siccius (or Sicinius) Denta- 
tus: who had received in the time of his military 
service eight crowns of gold ; fourteen civic crowns, 
three mural, eighty-three golden torques or collars, sixty 
golden armillce or bracelets, eighteen Jiastce puree, or 
fine spears of wood, and seventy-five phalerce, or suits 
of rich trappings for a horsa 

108 Dictionary [CLA-COA. 

CLAM, a Scotch term for an escalop or cockle-shell. 


CLECHE, or CLECHEE, a French term, applied to any 
ordinary which is so completely perforated, that its 
edges only are visible. 

CLECHE, A CROSS (voided and pomette), is one which 
spreads from the centre towards the extremities, then 
ends in an angle in the middle of the extremity, by 
lines drawn from the two points that make the breadth 
till they join. PL xxxvii., n. 17. 


CLINCHED signifies the hand to be shut, as PL XL., 
n. 17. 

CLOCKS, when used in arms, are drawn as table-clocks. 
In that in the arms of the Clockmakers' Company, the 
feet are four lions couchant, and it is ensigned with a 
regal crown. 

CLOSE, when the wings of a bird are down, and 
close to the body. PL rx., n. 19. The term is used for 
horse barnacles when they are not extended : also to 
denote a helmet with the visor down, as PL XLII., 

CLOSE-GIRT, is said of figures habited, whose clothes 
are tied about the middle. 

CLOSET is a diminutive of the bar, being the same 
figure to one half of its breadth. PL iv., n. 15. 

CLOSING TONGS, a tool used by the founders, and 
made part of their crest. PL xxiv., n. 9. 

CLOUDS frequently occur in arms, with devices issu- 
ing therefrom, and surrounding charges. 

CLYMANT, a term sometimes used to describe a goat 
when reared on its hind legs : see SALIENT. 

CO-AMBULANT, passant or walking together. 

COB-COL,] of Technical Terms. 109 

COBWEB and SPIDER, a cobweb, in the centre a spider. 
PI. xxxix., n. 10 This is the arms of Cobster. 

COCK. In heraldry, the cock is always understood 
to be the dunghill cock, unless otherwise expressed, 
and is represented as PI. xxxi., n. 14. Azure, three 
cocks, argent, armed, crested, and jettoped, proper ; name, 

COCKATRICE, an imaginary monster, which in his 
wings and legs partakes of the fowl, and in his tail of 
the snake, PI. vn., n. 23. Sable, a cockatrice or, combed 
gules ; name, Bothe. 

COCKATRICE DISPLAYED, PL xxxvin., n. 26. Sable, a 
cockatrice displayed argent, crested, membered, and jelloped, 
gules ; name, Buggine. 

COCKE, a term used by Leigh for a chess-rook. 

COGNIZANCE. This term is frequently but very in- 
accurately used to signify the crest. Crests were only 
worn by such as had superior military command, in 
order that they might be the better distinguished in an 
engagement, and thereby rally their men, if dispersed ; 
whereas Cognizances were badges which subordinate 
officers, and even soldiers, bore on their clothes or 
arms for distinction-sake ; see BADGES. 

COLLARED signifies any animal having a collar about 
his neck. 

COLOURS, and metals, when engraved, are known by 
dots and lines : as OR, the metal gold, is known in 
engraving by small dots or points ; ARGENT, a metal 
which is white, and signifies silver, is always left 
plain ; GULES, is expressed by lines perpendicular from 
top to bottom ; AZURE, by horizontal lines from side to 
side ; SABLE, by horizontal and perpendicular lines 
crossing each other ; VERT, by hatched lines from right 




to left diagonally ; PURPURE, by hatched lines from the 
sinister chief to the dexter base, diagonally. The 
metals or and argent are allowed precedency to colours. 
PI. n. 

Some of those fantastic writers of the 15th and 16th 
centuries, who have thrown such discredit upon the 
science they intended to support, promulgated the absurd 
opinion that colours, especially when compounded, were 
originally intended to signify certain virtues in the 
bearer, viz., gules with or signifies desire to conquer, 
with argent revenge, with vert courage in youth, &c. 

Some, also, that Gentlemen, Esquires, Knights, and 
Baronets' arms should be blazoned by metals and 
colours; Barons, Viscounts, Earls, Marquises, and 
Dukesj* by precious stones ; Sovereign Princes, Kings, 
and Emperors, by planets. Premising that such ideas 
are purely visionary, and the practice of such rules 
mere affectation, we subjoin a table illustrating the 





Yellow, ) W fOr, 























>2 < 




Love loyal. 











Dr*. Head, 

Murrey, , 



Dr n . Tail, 

These distinctions, however, were nowhere used but 
in England, being justly held in ridicule in all other 
countries, as a fantastic humour of our nation. 

COLUMBINE. This flower is borne in the arms of the 

COM-CON.] of Technical Terms. Ill 

company of Cooks. PI. xxv., n. 4. Argent, a chevron 
sable, between three columbines, proper ; name. Hall, of 

COMBATANT, that is to say, fighting, face to face. 
T. 9, n. 5. Or, lions rampant combatant, gules, langued 
and armed azure ; name, Wycombe. 

COMET, or BLAZING STAB, in heraldry, is a star of six 
points with a tail streaming from it in bend, as the ex- 
ample, PI. XYIII., n. 7 ; according to Guillim, is not of 
an orbicular shape, as other celestial bodies are, but 
rather dilates in the centre like a hairy bush, and 
grows thence taperwise, in the manner of a fox's tail. 
Comets were supposed to prognosticate events to come. 
They appear to be borne in coat-armour, of which the 
aforesaid author gives us an instance ; thus, Azure, a 
comet, streaming in bend, or ; name, Cartwright. 


COMPLEMENT. A term used to signify the moon at 
her full ; the technical mode of blazonry being, " the 
moon in her complement." 

COMPONY, is when a border, pale, bend, or other 
ordinary, is made up of small squares, consisting of 
two metals, or colours, in one row alternately. See 
PL v., n. 14. 

PONY only, the same when in two rows. 

CONEY, a rabbit. 

CONTRONTE, facing or fronting one another ; a term 
used by the French heralds as synonymous with com- 

CONGER-EEL'S HEAD, couped, borne on a pale ; name, 
Gascoigne. PI. xxxvii., n. 15. 

CONJOINED, or CONJUNCT, signifies charges in arms 

112 Dictionary [CON-COR. 

when joined together; viz., gules, two lions rampant, 
conjoined under one head, gardant, argent ; name, Kellum. 
See PI. xxxii., n. 22. Seven mascles conjunct, three, 
three and one. PI. xxxiv., n. 32. 

CONJOINED IN LURE is two wings joined together, 
with their tips downwards ; as the example, PI. x., n. 2. 

CONTOURNE, a French term applied to animals turned 
to the sinister side of the shield. PI. xxxii., n. 23. 

CONTRE signifies counter or opposite. 

CONTREPOINT is when two chevrons meet in the fess 
points, the one rising from the base, the other inverted, 
falling from the chief, so that they are counter or 
opposite to one another. See PI. xxxvm., n. 17. 

CONTRETREVIS, an ancient term for party per fess. 


COOTE, a small water-fowl, of the duck tribe, with a 
sharp-pointed beak, and its plumage all black, except 
at the top of the head. See PI. xxvi., n. 17. 

COPPER. An instrument used by gold and silver 
wire-drawers to wind wire upon, and borne by them as 
part of their armorial ensign. PI. xxiv., n. 2. 

COPPER CAKE. See PI. xxxvi., n. 6. Ermine, three 
copper cakes gules, and on a chief gules, a chamber proper ; 
name, CJiamlters, of London, Esq. 

CORBIE, an heraldic term for a raven. 

CORDED, signifies wound about with cords, as the 
example, PI. xxxvn., n. 6. 

CORMORANT. A sharp-billed bird, in other respects 
much resembling a goose. See PI. xxxm., n. 16. 

CORNET, a musical instrument. PI. xxx., n. 23. 

CORNISH CHOUGH is a fine blue or purple black bird, 
with red beak and legs. PI. xxxi., n. 17. 

CORNUCOPIA, or Horn of Plenty, filled with fruits, 

COR-COU.] of Technical Terms. 113 

corn, &c., an emblem generally placed in the hands of 
the figures of Plenty and Liberality. 

CORONET (Ital. coronetta, the diminutive of corona, a 
crown), when not otherwise described, is always under- 
stood to be a ducal one. For the coronets worn by the 
several degrees of nobility in England, &c., see CROWNS 
and CORONETS ; and for Coronets mural, naval, &c., see 

COST, or COTICE, is one of the diminutives of the 
bend, seldom borne but in couples with a bend between 
them. PL iv., n. 8. 

COTICED, or COTISED, anything that is accosted, sided, 
or accompanied by another. See PI. XL, n. 20. Argent, 
on a bend gules, coticed sable, three pair of wings con- 
joined of the first ; name, Wingfield. 

COTICE. A term used by the French when an 
escutcheon is divided bendwise into many equal parts. 

COTTON-HANK, PI. XLI., n. 6. Azure, a chevron be- 
tween three cotton hanlcs, argent ; name, Cotton. 

COUNTERCHANGED is an intermixture of several metals 
and colours one against another. See an example, 
PI. XIIL, n. 15. Quarterly or and azure, a cross of 
four lozenges between as many annulets, counterchanged ; 
name, Peacock. Likewise see the examples in 
PI. xxxvm., n. 19, 20, and 22. 

COUNTER-COMPONE, composed of small squares, but 
never above two rows. PI. v., n. 14. 

COUNTS R-EMBOWED, a dexter arm, couped at the 
shoulder, counter-embowed. PI. XL., n. 19. 

COUNTER-IMBATTLED. See the example, PI. XL., n. 5. 
Azure, a fess counter-imbattled, argent ; name, Garnas, of 

114 Dictionary [cou. 

COUNTER-PASSANT is when two beasts are passing the 
contrary way to each other. PI. ix, n. 8. Sable, two 
lions counter - passant argent, collared gules; name, 





COUNTER-VAIR, or and azure : this fur differs from 
vair, by having its cups or bells of the same tinctures, 
placed base against base, and point against point, 
ranged with their heads and points one upon the other, 
as or upon or. PI. n., n. 5. 

COUCHANT signifies a beast lying down, but with his 
head lifted up, which distinguishes the beast so lying 
from dormant. PI. vin., n. 20. 

COUPED is when the head or any other limb of an 
animal, or any charge in an escutcheon that is borne, 
is cut evenly off. See the examples. PI. vni., n. 16. 
PI. xxxvi., n. 14. PI. XVIIL, n. 14, n. 19. 

f^ff When boar's, bears', wolves', whales', and otters' 
heads, are couped close to the head, as example, 
PI. xxxvin., n. 2, it is termed couped close, to distinguish 
it from a boar's head couped, as PI. XXXVIIL, n. 3, and 
PI. xxxix., n. 17. 

COUPED, or HUMETTEE, A CROSS, signifies one so cut, 
or shortened, that the extremities reach not the outlines 
of the esutcheon. PI. xxxvi., n. 14. 

COUPLE-CLOSE, so termed from its enclosing by 
couples the chevron, of which it is a diminutive, being 
its fourth part. PI. iv, n. 19. Couple-closes are always 
borne by pairs, one on each side of a chevron. See 
Plate XL, n. 16. Sable, a chevron between two couple- 

COU-ORE.] of Technical Terms. 115 

closes, accompanied with three cinguefoils or ; name, 

COURANT, the heraldic term for running. PI. ix., n. 16. 

COWARD, or COWED, is when a lion or other animal 
has its tail hanging down between its legs. PI. xxxu., 
n. 13. 

CRAB ; the well-known shell-fish so called, is occa- 
sionally borne in arms. Argent, a chevron, between three 
sea crabs gules ; name, Bridger. 

CRAMPS, or CRAMPOONS, are pieces of iron, hooped at 
each end, and used in buildings to fasten two stones 
together. PL xxiv., n. 16. 

CRAMPET, or CRAMPETTE, is the chape or metal ter- 
mination at the bottom of the scabbard of a sword, 
by the French termed Botterolle. Argent, three bot- 
terolks gules, are the arms of the duchy of Angria. 
PI. xxiv., n. 20. 

CRAMPONNEE, CROSS, so termed because it has at 
each end a cramp, or square piece, coming from it. 
PL xxxvi., n. 5. 


CRESCENT, or a half-moon, with its horns turned 
towards the chief of the shield ; by this position it 
differs from the increscent and decrescent. See PL vn., 
n. 6. Azure, a crescent argent ; name, Lucy. 

CRESCENTED, A CROSS, that is, having a crescent at 
each end. PL xxxvi., n. 35. 

CREST is a figure placed upon a w r reath, coronet, or 
cap of maintenance, above the helmet or shield.* No 
women, except sovereign princesses, attach to their 
arms the helmet, mantlings, wreath, crest, or motto. 
See PL XXVIIL, n. 5. 

* See note to p. 64. 

116 Dictionary [CRE-CEO. 

CRESTED is when the cock, or other bird, has its 
comb of a different tincture from its body ; it is then 
termed crested of such a tincture, naming it. 

CHINED (Lat. crinis, the hair) is a term used in 
blazonry when speaking of the hair of a man or 
woman, or the mane of a horse, which, when it differs 
in tincture from the rest of the charge, is said to be 
crined of such a metal or colour. 

CRONEL, the iron head of a tilting spear. PI. xxxiv., 
n. 19. Sable, a chevron, ermine, between three cronels of 
a tilting spear, argent ; name, Wiseman. 

CROSIER. The crook or pastoral staff of bishops 
and abbots, a common bearing in the arms of dioceses 
and monasteries. It is called Baculis Pastoralis, as 
given to them in respect of their pastoral charge and 
superintendence over their flock, as well for feeding 
them with wholesome doctrine, as for defending them 
from the incursions of the wolf ; wherein they imitate 
the good and watchful shepherd, to whose crook this 
crosier bears a resemblance. PL XXVIL, n. 8. 

CROSS, one of the honourable ordinaries, formed by 
the meeting of two perpendicular with two horizontal 
lines, near the fess-point, where they make four right 
angles ; the lines are not drawn throughout, but dis- 
continued the breadth of the ordinary, which takes up 
only the fifth part of the field, when not charged, but 
if charged, the third. PL iv., n. 20. 

CROSS-BOW, or ARBALEST. The bow is an instru- 
ment to shoot arrows from ; they are of two sorts, the 
long-bow and cross-bow ; the first discharges an arrow 
by the force of him who draws the bow ; while the 
latter owes its extension to the power of a small lever, 
which is let off by means of a trigger. Ermine, a cross- 

CORONETS.] of Technical Terms. 117 

bow bent in pale gules; name, Arblaster. PI. xxvn., 
n. 1. 

CROSS CROSSLET, that is, crossed at each end., 
n. 10. 

PER CROSS. This term signifies the field to be 
divided into four equal parts, and to consist of metals 
and colours, or furs and colours, without any charge 
occupying the quarters ; but if the quarters be charged, 
then it is blazoned quarterly. Party per cross, gules 
and argent. PI. in., n. 5. 


CROSSWISE, or, in cross, is when any charges are 
placed in form of a cross, five being the common 
number. See PL xxxvi., n. 17 and 18. 


The EOYAL CROWN of GREAT BRITAIN is a circle of 
gold, enriched with pearls and stones, and heightened 
up with four crosses pattee, and four fleurs-de-lis alter- 
nately; from these rise four arch-diadems, adorned 
with pearls, which close under a mound, ensigned by 
a cross pattee. Edward IV. was the first sovereign of 
England that, in his seal, or on his coin, was crowned 
with an arch-diadem. The crown used at the last 
coronation was beautified and improved agreeably to 
the taste of the age. PI. XLIII., n. 1. 

The PRINCE OF WALES'S CORONET is a circle of gold, 
set round with crosses pattee, and fleurs-de-lis, but has 
only one arch, decorated with pearls, surmounted by a 
mound and cross. PI. XLIII., n. 2. Three ostrich- 
feathers, argent, quilled or, enfiled with a prince's 
coronet of the last, with an escrol, azure, thereon the 
words Ich dien, I serve, PI. 5, n, 24, is the badge or 

1.18 Dictionary [CORONETS. 

cognisance of every Prince of Wales, and is popularly 
supposed to have been assumed by Edward the Black 
Prince, after the battle of Cressy, A.D. 1346, where 
] laving, with his own hand, . killed John, king of 
Bohemia, who served the king of France in his wars, 
and was his stipendiary, he took from his head such a 
plume and put it on his own, to perpetuate the victory. 
There is no authority, however, for the statement that 
he personally slew the brave blind old king, and strong 
evidence that an ostrich-feather was a family badge 
borne by Edward III., and all his family. 

Tins coronet has a circle of gold, heightened up with 
four fleurs-de-lis, crosses pattee and strawberry-leaves 
alternately. PI. XLIIL, n. 3. 

NEPHEWS of the BLOOD EOYAL differ from the 
younger sons or brothers, by having strawberry-leaves 
on the rim, as theirs have fleurs-de-lis. PI. XLIIL, n. 3. 

PRINCESS EOYAL. Coronets of the Princesses of 
Great Britain are a circle of gold, and heightened up 
with crosses pattee, fleurs-de-lis, and strawberry-leaves 
alternately. PL XLIIL, n. 5. 

DUKE'S CORONET is a circle of gold, with eight straw- 
berry or parsley-leaves, of equal height, above the rim. 
PL XLIIL, n. 6. 

MARQUIS'S CORONET is a circle of gold, set round 
with four strawberry-leaves, and as many pearls, on 
pyramidical points of equal height, alternately. 
PL XLIIL, n. 7. 

EARL'S CORONET is a circle of gold, heightened up 
with eight pyramidical points or spikes ; on the tops of 
which are as many pearls, which are placed alternately 
with as many strawberry-leaves, below on the rim. 
PL XLIIL, n. 8. 

CROWNS.] of Technical Terms. 119 

VISCOUNT'S CORONET is a circle of gold, having six- 
teen pearls on the rim. Coronets were first assigned 
to viscounts in the reign of King James I. PL XLIII., 
n. 9. 

BARON'S CORONET, on a gold circle, six pearls, 
PL XLIII., n. 10. Coronets were assigned to barons by 
King Charles II., after his restoration. 

The pearls on the English coronets are commonly 
called pearls, but they are always made of silver. 

Originally the barons wore scarlet caps turned up 
with white: they afterwards wore caps of crimson 
turned up with ermine, and on the top a tassel of gold. 
This they used till the reign of Charles II., as before 
mentioned. All the above coronets have within them, 
when worn, a cap of crimson velvet with a gold tassel 
on the top, and a border of .ermine, which is seen 
below the circlet; but the caps are now occasionally 
omitted in representation, which gives to the coronet a 
more mediaeval character. 

In 1665, Charles II. granted his royal warrants to 
the officers of arms in Scotland and Ireland, for the 
peers of each of those kingdoms to wear the same 
fashioned coronets as those of England, according to 
their several degrees. 

The mitres of archbishops and bishops are distin- 
guished by a plain fillet of gold. See PL XLIII., n. 12. 
Excepting that of the Palatine Bishop of Durham, 
which has it issuing out of a ducal coronet. 


1 Celestial, 5 Charlemagne, 9 Portugal, 

2 Eastern, 6 Grand Seignor, 10 Denmark, 

3 Imperial, 7 France, 11 Russia, 
4: Pope, S Spain, 12 Prussia, 

120 Dictionary [CRO-CUS. 

CROWNS FOEEIGN, &c. PLATE XLV. continued. 

13 Poland, 18 Dauphin, 23 Mural, 

14 Persia, 19 Brunswick, 24 Civic, 

15 Electoral, 20 Doge of Venice, 25 Triumphal, 

16 Archduke, 21 Vallery, 26 Obsidional, 

17 Duke of Tuscany, 22 Naval, 27 Chaplet, 

28 Wreath. 


1 Bohemia, 9 Waldeck, 17 Guastalla, 

2 Sardinia, 10 Mecklenburg, 18 Baden, 

3 Sicily, 11 Genoa, 19 Modena, 

4 Holland, 12 Lorraine, 20 Holstein, 

5 Orange, 13 Guelderland, 21 Hungary, 

6 Hanover, 14 Mentz, 22 Sweden, 

7 Palatine, 15 Catalonia, 23 Mantua, 

8 Cologne, 16 Parma, 24 Valence. 

These crowns are copied from the seals of the dif- 
ferent countries. 

CROWNS, Vallery, Mural, &c. See those terms. 

CRUSULY is the field or charge, strewed over with 

CRWTH, an ancient term for a violin. 

CUBIT ARM is the hand and arm couped at the elbow. 
See PI. XL., n. 17. 

CUIRASS, or breast-plate of armour. See PI. 
xxvni., n. 1. 

CUISSES are those parts of armour which cover the 
thighs and knees, and by former heralds were called 

CULLVERS, or Culliers. See CUISSES. 


CURRIER'S SHAVE. A tool used by curriers to thin 
leather ; it is borne in the arms and crest of the 
Curriers' Company. PI. xxv,, n. 18. 

CUSHIONS. This charge is borne by many ancient 

CUT-DEC.] of Technical Terms. 121 

families. PI. xxvm., n. 15. Gules, three cushions ermine, 
buttoned and tasselled or ; name, Redman. 

CUTTING-IRON. A tool used by the patten-makers, 
and borne by them in their armorial ensign, PL xxxiv., 
n. 30. 

CUTTLE-FISH, or Ink-fish. PI. xxxm., n. 22. 

CYGNET EOTAL. This term is given to swans when 
they are collared about the neck with an open crown, 
and a chain affixed thereto. See PL xxxi., n. 15. 
The most proper blazon is, a swan argent, ducally gorged 
and chained or. When the head of a swan is a charge, 
it is blazoned, a swan's neck (not head) erased or couped : 
but this is not the custom in regard to any other species 
of bird. 


DANCETTE is a larger sort of indenting (being wider 
and deeper than that called indented), whose points 
never exceed three in number. PL in. Note. See the 
difference in PL xix., n. 12. Or, a fess dancette sable. 
N. 11, is azure two bars indented or, a chief argent. 

DANISH AXE or HATCHET. See PL xxxn., n. 11, and 
PL xxix., n. 6. 

DARNEL, a term for a cockle. 

DAUPHIN'S CROWN is a circle of gold, set round with 
eight fleurs-de-lis, closed at the top with four dolphins, 
whose tails conjoin under a fleur-de-lis. PL XLV., 
n. 18. 

DEBRUISED is when a bend or other ordinary is 
placed over any animal, whereby it is debarred of its 
natural freedom. See PL xxxn., n. 17. 

DECOLLATED, having the head cut off. 

DECRESCENT shows the state of the moon when she 
declines from her full to her last quarter, and differs 

122 Dictionary [DEF-DEX. 

from the increscent by having the horns towards the 
left side of the shield. PL vu., n. 8. Azure a decrescent 
proper ; name, De la Luna. 

DEFAMED signifies a creature to have lost its tail, as 
if it were disgraced and made infamous by the loss 
thereof. PL xxxn., n. 14. 

DEGRADED. A cross is said to be degraded when it 
has steps at each end. PL xxxvi., n. 3. Argent, a cross 
degraded sable ; name, Wyntworth. 

DEMI signifies the half of a thing, as a demi-lion. 
See PL vin., n. 18. Or, a demi-lion rampant gules ; name, 

DEMI-VOL is one wing. PL ix., n. 23. 

DEMI FLEUR-DE-LIS. PL x., n. 8. A demi-fleur- 
de-lis gules is the crest of Stoddyr. See another, 
PL xxv., n. 24. 

DEMI-EOSE. See PL xxxn., n. 29. Or, on a fess 
vert, between three battle-axes gules, a fleur-de-lis or, en- 
closed by two demi-roses argent ; name, Jenynges. 

DENMARK, CROWN of, PL XLV., n. 10. 

DETRIMENT, a term for the moon when eclipsed. 


DEXTER signifies the right-hand side of the escut- 
cheon ; the supporter, and everything placed on the 
right hand, is termed the dexter ; it is also the male 
side in an impaled coat of arms. 

DEXTER HAND, the right hand. PL xxxv., n. 32. 
Azure, a dexter hand couped, argent ; name, Brome. 

DEXTER BASE is the right side of the base, repre- 
sented by the letter G. See PL i. 

DEXTER CHIEF is the angle on the right-hand side 
of the chief represented by the letter A. See PL I. 

DEXTER WING. The right wing. 

DIA-DIS.] of Technical Terms. 123 

DIAMOND is a precious stone, which in heraldry signi- 
fies the colour sable or black. 

DIAPERED is dividing the field in panes like fret- 
work, and filling the same with a variety of figures, 
according to the fancy of the painter. PI. xxxvm., 
n. 14. Care must be taken that no ornament is used 
which can possibly be confounded with an heraldic 


DIFFERENCE is certain figures added to coats of arms, 
to distinguish one branch of a family from another, and 
how distant younger branches are from the elder. See 

DIMINUTIVES. The pale's diminutives are the PALLET 
and ENDORSE; the lend has the GARTER, COST, and 
RIBBON ; the bar has the CLOSET, BARRULET, and BAR- 
GEMEL ; the chevron has the CHEVRONEL and COUPLE- 
CLOSE ; the bend sinister has the SCARPE and BATON ; the 
bordure has the ORLE and TRESSURE ; the quarter has 
the CANTON ; the flanch has the FLASQUE and VOIDER. 
See each in its respective place. 

DISMEMBERED signifies a cross, or other thing, cut in 
pieces, and set up at a small distance, but keeping the 
form of the figure. See PI. xxxvi., n. 9. See a 
lion dismembered, PL xxxv., n. 14. Or, a lion ram- 
pant gules, dismembered, within a double tressure, flory, 
counter-flory of the second; name, Maitland. 

DISPLAYED, for the wings of a bird when they are 
expanded, as in the example, an eagle displayed. PI. ix., 
n. 21. 

DISTILLATORY, double-armed with two worms and 
bolt-receivers on fire, being part of the arms of the 
Distillers' Company. PL xxv., n. 14. 

124: Dictionary [DIS. 

DISTINCTIONS OF HOUSES. These differences serve 
to inform us from what line the bearer of each is de- 
scended: these distinctions began about the time of 
Eichard the Second (according to Camden Clarencieux). 


Fig. 1, is the label for the first son. 

Fig. 2, the crescent for the second son. 

Fig. 3, the mullet for the third son. 

Fig. 4, the martlet for the fourth son. 

Fig. 5, the annulet for the fifth son. 

Fig. 6, the fleur-de-lis for the sixth son. 

Fig. 7, a rose for the seventh son. 

Fig. 8, a cross moline for the eighth son. 

Fig. 9, a double quatrefoil for the ninth son. 

By tliese distinctions every brother or house ought to 
observe his or its due difference. 


V. Fig. 1, the crescent with the label on it for the first son 
) of the second son. 

Fig. 2, the crescent on the crescent for the second son 
\ of the second son of the first house, and so on. See 

sgl! The distinctions made use of for differencing the 
several princes and princesses of the blood royal of 
England are generally labels, variously charged. 

DISVELOPED signifies displayed; as colours flying, 
or spread out, are in heraldry often said to be dis- 
veloped. See PI. v., n. 1. Wyrley, noted in the life 
and death of the Capitaine de Bur, says, " Withthreaten- 

DOG-DOU.] of Technical Terms. 125 

ing ax in hand I was at hand ; and my disvelloped penon 
me before." 


DOGS, of various kinds are common in heraldry. See 
TALBOT, ALANT, &c. Or, a fess dancette between three 
talbots passant, sable ; name, Carrach 

DOLPHIN is reckoned the king of fishes, and is used 
in several coats of arms. The ancients invariably 
represent the dolphin with its back greatly incurvated. 
In their leaps out of the water they assume this form, 
but their natural shape is straight, the back being but 
slightly incurvated. PI. xxviii., n. 2. The example in 
blazon is termed a dolphin naiant embowed ; but when a 
dolphin appears in a coat straight, it is then termed a 
dolphin extended naiant ; when it is placed perpendicular, 
with its body in the form of a letter S, it is called 
springing and hauriant ; but it is most usually blazoned a 
hauriant dolphin torqued. Azure, a dolphin hauriant 
embowed, argent ; name, Fitz- James. 

DORMANT signifies sleeping, with the head resting on 
the fore-paws. PI. vin., n. 19. Or, three lions dormant 
in pale, sable ; name, Lloyd. 


DOUBLE DAXCETTE, a bend ; according to Leigh, the 
bend double dancette is a mark of bastardy. See PL 
xxiv., n. 13. Carter has this example, viz., azure, a 
bend double dancette, argent ; name, Lories ; but makes 
no mention of the mark of bastardy. 

DOUBLE-HEADED (A LION). This instance is from 
Leigh, who says the bearer did homage to two princes 
(who both bore a lion rampant), for certain lands, by 
bearing a lion rampant with two heads, signifying the 
two princes he homaged. A fair example of the stories 

126 Dictionary [DOU-DRA. 

invented to account for singular charges in ancient 
coats, the true reason for their assumption being lost 
sight of. PL xxxii., n. 19. Or, a lion, double-headed, 
azure ; name, Sir John Mason. 

DOUBLE - TAILED, a lion rampant, double - tailed. 
PL xxxii., n. 18. Or, a lion doubled - tailed or queued, 
azure; name, Wandesford. 

DOUBLE-MTCHY, A CROSS, each extremity having two 
points. PL xxxvii., n. 7. 

DOUBLE-PASTED, A CROSS. PL xxxvi., n. 16. Azure, 
a cross double-parted, argent ; name, Doubler, of Cheshire. 

DOUBLE-PLUME, of ostrich-feathers, is generally com- 
posed of five at bottom, and four at top. PL xxxii., 
n. 9. 

DOUBLE EOSE. See PL xxxvii., n. 21. 

DOUBLE TRESSURE, two tressures, one within the 
other. See PL xix., n. 9. 

DOUBLE QUATREFOIL. The double quatrefoil is used 
as a distinction for the ninth brother. PL XLII., n. 9. 

DOUBLINGS are the linings of robes or mantles of 
state, or the mantlings in achievements. 

DOVE DISPLAYED in the glory of the sun. PL xxxix., 
n. 12. This bearing is a part of the arms of the Sta- 
tioners' Company. 

DOVE-TAIL, one of the partition lines, wherein two 
different tinctures are set within one another, in the 
form of doves' tails or wedges. PL in. 

DRAGON, an imaginary monster, used in heraldry, both 
in coats, crests, and supporters. PL vin., n. 1. Gules, three 
dragons passant, in pale ermine ; name, filossun. 

DRAGON'S HEAD, in heraldry is the colour tenne, or 
orange colour. Obsolete, if ever used. 

DRAGON'S TAIL, in heraldry, is the term for sanguine 

DRA-ECL.] of Technical Terms. 127 

or murrey, the colour of blood, or mulberry juice, also 

DRAWING-IRON, an instrument used by wire-drawers, 
and part of their armorial ensign. See PL xxxvn., 
n. 25. 


DUCIPER, a term for a cap of maintenance. 


EAGLE. The eagle was the tutelary bird and ensign 
of the Romans. Azure, an eagle displayed, argent, armed 
gules; name, Cotton. 

SPREAD EAGLE signifies an eagle with two heads, as 
the example ; but it is more heraldic to say, an eagle 
with two heads, displayed. PI. xxxi., n. 31. According 
to Porney the reason why the Emperor of Germany bore 
an eagle with two necks is this : on the union of the 
kingdom of Eomania, now a province of Turkey in 
Europe, its arms, which were an eagle displayed sable, 
being the same as those of the emperor, were united 
into one body, leaving it two necks, as they are still 
borne by the Emperor of Austria ; but there is also the 
double-headed Eagle of the Emperor of all the Eussias 
to account for. 

EAGLET : when there are more than one eagle in a 
coat without some ordinary between them, then in 
blazon they are termed eaglets, or young eagles. 


EASTERN CROWN, so termed from its being like that 
formerly worn by the Jewish kings ; it was made of 
gold, with rays about it, as the example. PI. XLV. n., 2. 

ECLIPSED, the term used when the sun or moon is 

128 Dictionary [EEL-ENA. 

either partially or wholly obscured, the face and rays 
being sable. 

EEL-SPEAR, an instrument used by fishermen for 
taking of eels. PI. XXVIIL, n. 21. Sable, a chevron be- 
tween three eel-spears, argent ; name, Stratele. 

EGUISEE, A CROSS, is that which has the two angles 
at the ends cut off so as to terminate in points. 
PI. XXXVIL, n. 3. 

EIGHTFOIL, or double quatrefoil is eight-leaved grass. 
Sylvanus Morgan gives this as a difference of the ninth 
branch of a family. See PL XLII., n. 9. 

ELECTORAL CROWN is a scarlet cap, faced with ermine, 
diademed with half a circle of gold, set with pearls, sup- 
porting a globe, with a cross of gold on the top. 
PL XLV., n. 15. 

ELEPHANT. PL xxxi., n. 11. Gules, an elephant pas- 
sant argent, armed or ; name, Elphinstone. 

ELEVATED, as wings elevated, signifies the points of 
them turned upwards. See PL x., n. 1. 


EMBOWED, a term for anything bent or crooked like 
a bow, as the dolphin. PL x., n. 6. A sinister arm 
couped at the shoulder, embowed. See PL XL., n. 18. 

EMBRUED signifies a weapon, &c., that is bloody, 
viz., a spear-head, embrued gules. See IMBRUED. 

EMERALD, a stone : it signifies in heraldry the colour 
vert or green. 

EMEW of the heralds, is the bird called by the natu- 
ralists cassowary. 

ENALTJRON, for a border charged with birds. The 
blazon would be more plain, and better understood, by 
naming the number ; thus, on a border azure, eight mart- 
lets or. PL xxxiv., n. 9. 

END-EXT.] of Technical Terms. 129 

ENDORSE is the fourth of the pale, seldom borne but 
when a pale is between two of them. PI. iv., n. 4. 

ENDORSED, two things placed back to back ; as two 
lions, or two keys, endorsed. PI. XL., n. 16. 

ENTILED : when the head of a man, or beast, or any 
other charge, is placed on the blade of a sword, the 
sword is said to be enfiled with a head, &c. 

ENGRAILED, a line of partition, by which ordinaries 
are diversified, composed of semicircles, the teeth or 
points of which enter the field. PI. in. Also a bordure. 
See PI. v., n. 10. 

ENGROSSING-BLOCK, a tool made use of by the wire- 
drawers. PI. xxiv., n. 14. 

ENHANCED, is when an ordinary is placed above its 
usual situation, which chiefly happens to the bend and 
its diminutives, viz., argent, three bendlets enhanced 
gules ; name, Byron. PI. xxxv., n. 29. 

ENGOULEE, A CROSS, a term for crosses, saltires, &c., 
when their extremities enter the mouths of lions, 
leopards, &c. PI. xxxvu., n. 23. 


ENSIGNED, signifies borne on or over, by way of 
ornament ; as in the example, a mans heart gules, en- 
signed with a crown or. See PI. xni., n32. 

ENTE signifies grafted or ingrafted. This term is 
used in blazoning the fourth grand quarter of his late 
Majesty's arms, viz., Brunswick and Lunenburgh impaled 
with Saxony ente-en-pointe, that is, grafted in point. 

ENTOYER, for a bordure charged with dead or arti- 
ficial things, to the number of eight. PI. xxxvin., 
n. 13. The most approved method is to say, argent, a 
border sable charged icith eight plates, mentioning their 

130 Dictionary [ENT ERM. 

says, the colour need not be named, for it is always 
sable. Or, on a chevron, sable, a fleur-de-lis accompanied 
by two stags' heads caboshed, between three crosses, en- 
trailed of the second; name, Carver. See PL xxxvu., 
n. 20. 

ENURNEY, for a bordure charged with beasts. PL 
xxxvui., n. 10. The same may be observed here as 
before to the term entoyer, viz., that the more intelli- 
gible blazon is, argent, a border gules, charged with eight 
lions passant of the first. 


ENWRAPPED, viz., a child's head couped below the 
shoulders, enwrapped about the neck with a snake : 
some say enveloped. PI. xvin., n. 21. 

EPAULIER, a shoulder-plate of armour. 

ERADICATED, a term for a tree or plant torn up by 
the root. See PI. xin., n. 22. 

ERASED is when the head or limb of any creature is 
violently torn from the body, so that it appears jagged. 
PL VIIL, n. 17. Argent, a lions head erased, gules ; name, 

Note. When boars', bears', wolves', whales', and otters 
heads are erased close to the head, as the example, 
PL xxxvui., n. 4, it is termed erased close, to dis- 
tinguish it from a head erased, as the boar's head, 
PL xxxvui., n. 5, which exhibits a portion of the neck. 

ERECT signifies anything upright or perpendicularly 
elevated, as PL x., n. 1. 

ERMINE is black spots on a white field. PL n., n. 1. 

ERMINE, A CROSS, or four ermine-spots in cross. 
PL vi., n. 13. 

ERMINES is white spots on a black field. PL n. 

ERH-ESC.] of Technical Terms. 131 

ERMINITES is the field white, and the spots black, 
with one red hair on each side. 

ERMINOIS is the field gold, and the spots black. 
PL ii. 5 n. 3. 

The French say, d'or seme d'hermines de sable. 

ESCALLOP-SHELL was the pilgrims' ensign in their 
expeditions and pilgrimages to holy places : they were 
worn on their hoods and hats, and were of such a dis- 
tinguishing character that Pope Alexander the Fourth, 
by a bull, forbade the use of them but to pilgrims 
who were truly noble. They are of frequent use in 
armoury. PI. xxvii., n. 2. Sable an escallop-shell argent ; 
name, Travers. 

ESCARBUNCLE, a precious stone, resembling a burning 
coal in its lustre and colour. The ancient heralds drew 
it as in the plate, to express those rays which issue from 
the centre, which is the stone. PL vn., n. 18. 


ESCUTCHEON (the) represents the original shield, 
buckler, or target, used in war, on which, under every 
variety of shape, arms were formerly, and still are 
blazoned. When shields ceased to be employed, their 
form was still retained as the field on which coat- 
armour is depicted ; but that form has varied consider- 
ably among different nations, at different periods, and 
even at the same time. The oldest heraldic escut- 
cheons are termed Norman, on account of the shape 
generally used by that people. They resemble a Gothic 
arch reversed ; the form of which became broader in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and has re- 
mained so to this day, when it is again the favourite 
shape. The escutcheons of maids, widows, and such 
as are born ladies, and are married to private gentle- 

132 Dictionary [ESC-FAL. 

men, are always in the form of a lozenge or diamond ; 
which is supposed to refer to the spindle, as em- 
blematic of virginity. 

ESCUTCHEON OP PRETENCE is that escutcheon in which 
a man bears the coat of arms of his wife, being an 
heiress; it is placed in the centre of the man's coat, 
and thereby shows his pretensions to her lands, by 
his marriage, accrued to him and the heirs of his body. 
See PI. XL., n. 4. 

ESCUTCHEON, POINTS or THE, see ante, p. 10, and Table I. 

ESPEIT, ST., CROSS OF. This cross is worn by the 
knights of that order in France. PI. xxxvi., n. 22. 

ESTOILE, or star, differs from the mullet by having 
six waved points ; those of the mullet consisting of 
five plain points. PI. vn., n. 2. Guillim says, if the 
number of points be more than six, the number must 
be expressed. 


EYED is a term used in speaking of the spots re- 
sembling eyes in the peacock's tail. 

EYES are borne in armoury : barry nebule of six pieces, 
azure and qrgent on a chief of the second, thrte eyes gules ; 
name, De la Hay, of Ireland. 

FACE, a term used for FESS. 

FALCHION, a kind of broad-sword. PI. xxv., n. 10. 
See another, PI. xxx., n. 17, termed an ancient English 

FALCON, in heraldry, is usually represented with 
bells tied on his legs ; when decorated with hood, bells, 
virols (or rings), and leashes, then in blazon he is 
said to be hooded, belled, jessed, and leashed, and the 
colours thereof must be named. PI. ix., n. 20. Sable, a 
falcon with wings expanded or ; name, Peche, of Sussex. 

FAN-FET.] of Technical Terms. 133 


FANG-TOOTH. See PI. xxix., n. 5. Azure, three fang 
teeth in fess or ; name, Bathor. 

FEE DE FOUECHETTE, A CROSS ; so termed, from its 
having at each end a forked iron, like that formerly used 
by soldiers to rest their muskets on. PI. xxxvn., n. 18, 


FEBMAILE, or FEEMEATJ, signifies a buckle. 

FESS POINT is the centre of the escutcheon. See PI. i., 
letter E. 

FESS, one of the honourable ordinaries, and contains 
a third of the field ; some authors say it was a belt of 
honour, given as a reward by kings, &c., for services in 
the army. PI. iv., n. 13. 

FESS BEETESSED has the same indents as counter-em- 
battled ; but the example has both sides equal to each 
other. PI. XL., n. 6. Or a fess bretessed gules; name, 
Crebott, of Sussex. 

PEE FESS is when the field or charge is equally 
divided by a horizontal line. Party per fess or and 
azure ; name, Zusto, of Venice. PI. in., n. 3. 

PEE FESS and PALE signifies the field to be divided 
into three parts by the fess line, and the pale line, 
from the fess point to the middle bass point. PI. 
XXXVIIL, n. 30. 

FESSE TAEGET, an ancient term for an escutcheon of 

FESSELY, an ancient term for part y per fess. 

FESSWAYS, or FESSWISE, implies any charge placed or 
borne in fess, that is, in a horizontal line across the 
field, or if a crest, on the wreath. 

FETLOCK, or FETTEELOCK, a horse fetlock. PI. xxv., 
n. 15. 

1 34 Dictionary [FET-FIR. 


FIELD is the surface of the escutcheon or shield, 
which contains the charge or charges, and must be the 
first thing mentioned in blazoning. 

FIGURED, a term sometimes used in blazoning those 
bearings which are depicted with a human face, as 
PI. XIIL, n. 25. 


FILLET is an ordinary, which, according to Guillim, 
contains the fourth part of a chief. 

FIMBRIATED, A CROSS, having a narrow bordure or 
hem, of another tincture. See PI. xxxvii., n. 2. 

FIRE, FLAMES OF. Argent, a chevron voided, azure, 
between three flames of fire proper; name, Wells. PI. XIIL, 
n. 26. 

FIRE-BALL, grenade or bomb, inflamed proper. PL 
xxvii., n. 14. 

FIRE-BEACON, a machine formerly used to give notice 
of the approach of an enemy, and to alarm the country. 
This is by some ancient heralds termed a rack-pole 
beacon. See PI. xxvii., n. 4. PI. xxxiv., n. 16. 

There is another figure also termed by some ancient 
writers a fire-beacon; but Edrnondson thinks it (see 
the example, PL xxxvm., n. 8,) should be blazoned, a 
fire-chest : such chests made of iron, and filled with fire, 
anciently used to warm the inside of large halls. 

FIRE-BRAND, viz., a fire-brand inflamed proper. PL 
xxxv., n. 27. Fire-brands in armoury are generally 
represented raguly. 

FIRE-BUCKET, PL xxx., n. 20. Argent three fire- 
buckets sable ; name, Tame. 

FIRME, a term for a cross pattee throughout. See 
PL xxxix., n. 9. 

FIS-FLE.] of Technical Terms. 135 

FISH-HOOK, PI. xxx., n. 15. Sable, a chevron, 'be- 
tween three fish-hooks argent ; name, Medville. 

FISH- WHEEL, PL xxxn., n. 30. Or, between a chevron, 
three fish-wheels sable ; name, Foleborne. 

FITCHY, FITCHEE, or FITCHED, a term used for 
crosses, when the lower branch ends in a sharp point 
(French fichee, fixed) ; supposed to have been first so 
sharpened to enable the primitive Christians to fix the 
cross in the ground for devotion ; viz., a cross-crosslet 
fitcliy, as PI. vi., n. 11. 

FITCHY (DOUBLE), is a cross, each extremity of whicn 
has two points. PI. xxxvn., n. 7. 

FLANCHES. The flanch is composed of an arched 
line, drawn from the upper angle of the escutcheon to 
the base point of one side, and so on to the other, the 
arches almost meeting in the middle of the field. 
Flanches are never borne single, but in couples, and 
always in the flanks of the shield. PI. v., n. 2. Ermine, 
a star of eight rays or, between two flanches sable ; name, 
Sir John Hobart, of Norfolk. 

FLANK is that part of an escutcheon which is between 
the chief and the base. 

FLASQUES are like the flanch, but smaller, and not so 
circular. PI. xxxv., n. 6. Gibbon affirms that the 
flasque and the flanch are one and the same. 


FLEAM, an instrument used by farriers in bleeding 
horses : some ancient heralds represent them as PL 
xxiv., n. 16. Others term them crampoons, or cramps 
of iron, for fixing blocks of stone together. 

FLEAM, an ancient lancet, formerly borne in the 
arms of the Company of Barber-Surgeons. PL xxxni., 
n. 7. 

136 Dictionary [FLE-FLO. 

FLEECE, the woolly skin of a sheep suspended from 
the middle, by a ring in a collar or band. See GOLDEN 

FLESH-POT, a three-legged iron pot. See PI. xxvii., 
n. 15. Argent, three flesh-pots gules, with two handles ; 
name, Mouribowchier. 

. FLEXED, or FLECTED, signifies bowed or bent, as the 
example, PI. xin., n. 21, viz.: three dexter arms con- 
joined at the shoulders, and flexed in triangle or, with the 
fists clenched proper ; name, Tremaine. 

FLEUK-DE-LIS : by some this emblem is supposed to 
represent the lily, or flower of the iris or flag; but 
it has only three leaves, by which it certainly differs 
from the lily of the garden, that having always five : 
others suppose it to be the top of a sceptre ; some the 
head of the French battle-axe ; others, the iron head of 
a javelin used by the ancient French. Dr. Orwade says, 
many deceased antiquaries, as well as some of the 
present day, have thought, and do think, that it was 
originally meant to represent the flower from which it 
derives its name.* PI. xxvii., n. 19. Azure, a fleur-de- 
lis argent; name, Digby. 

FLEURY, A CROSS. This cross is differenced from the 
cross-flory, by its having a line between the ends of 
the cross and the flowers, which that has not. PI. 
xxxvi., n. 32. 

FLOAT, an instrument used by the bowyers, and 
borne as part of their armorial ensign. PI. xxiv., n. 10. 

FLOOR, an Irish term for a large flounder. 

FLORY signifies flowered with the French lily. 

* It appears first heraldically on the seals and coins of Louis 
VII. of France, and was most probably a rebus signifying, 
" Flour de Louis." ED. 

FLO-FRE.] of Technical Terms. 137 

FLORY, A CROSS, is one the extremities of which end 
in fleurs-de-lis : it differs from the patonce, by having 
the flowers at the ends circumflex, and turning down. 
PL vi., n. 3. Azure, a cross-flory argent ; name, Florence. 

FLOTANT, to express anything flying in the air, as a 

FLYING FISH. This fish, if we except its head and 
flat back, has, in the form of its body, a great resem- 
blance to the herring. The scales are large and 
silvery ; the pectoral fins are very long ; and the dorsal 
fin is small, and placed near the tail, which is forked. 
PI. xxxiii., n. 8. 

FORCENE signifies a horse rearing or standing on his 
hinder legs. PL xxvi., n. 4. 



FOUNTAIN: we find fountains borne by Stourton of 
Stourton, being a bend between six fountains, in signi- 
fication of six springs, whereof the river Stoure, in 
Wiltshire, hath its beginning, and passeth along to 
Stourton, the head of that barony. The fountain in 
ancient heraldry was always drawn as a roundle, barry 
wavy of six, argent and azure. 

FOURCHEE, A CROSS, signifies forked at the ends, or 
divided. PL xxvii., n. 8. Per pale, or and vert, a cross 
fourchee gules; name, Sir John Hingham. 

Fox. PL xxvi., n. 15. 

FRACTED, broken asunder ; as, a globe fracted. 

FRAISIER, in French, signifies a strawberry-plant. 
This word is used by the heralds of Scotland in 
blazoning the coat of Fraser, in allusion to the family 
name. It is by other heralds termed a cinque-foil. 

FRENCH CROWN is a circle, decorated with stones, 

138 Dictionary [FBE-GAD. 

and heightened up with eight arched diadems, arising 
from as many fleurs-de-lis, that conjoin at the top under 
a fleur-de-lis, all of gold. PI. XLV., n. 7. 

FRET, a figure resembling two sticks lying saltire- 
wise, and interlaced- within a mascle, by some termed 
Harington's Knot (being also the coat of Harington ; 
argent a fret sable), and by others the Herald's True 
Lover's Knot. PL v., n. 6. Sable a fret or; name, Mal- 

FRETTED,. A CROSS, fretted and pointed in form of 
five mascles. PL xxxvi., n. 13. 

FRETTED IN TRIANGLE. PL xxxi., n. 28. Azure, 
three trouts, fretted in triangle, heads or, tails argent; 
name, Trowtebeck. 

FRETTY. See the example, PL v., n. 24. 

FRUCTED, a term given in blazon to all trees bearing 

FURCHY, or FOURCHEE, signifies forked. 

FURNISHED, a term applied to a horse when bridled, 
saddled, and completely caparisoned. 

FURS are used as the artificial trimming or furring 
of robes and garments of the nobility, and likewise as 
an ornament in coat-armour. See further of FURS, 
ante, p. 12. 

FUSIL, derived from the French word, fusee, a spindle; 
it is longer and more acute than the lozenge. PL vi., 
n. 18. Ermine, three fusils infesse sable; name, Pigot. 

FUSIL, or a spindle of yarn. PL xxxiv., n. 14. 

FUSILLY is when the field or charge is filled with 
fusils. PL xxxvin., n. 28. Fusilly argent and gules is 
the arms of Grimaldi de Monaco, in Genoa. 

GADS are plates of steel and borne as part of the 
arms of the Ironmongers' Company. PL xxiv., n. 11. 

GAD-GAR.] of Technical Terms. 139 

GAD-BEE, or GAD-FLY; this fly is by some called 
the dun-fly, by others the horse-fly, and is that which in 
summer so much torments cattle. Sable, three gad-bees 
volant, argent ; name, Burninghill. PL xxvi., n. 23. 


GAL-TRAPS, or CALTRAPS, by some supposed to be a 
corruption of cAetW-trap, and by others thought to 
have been named gal or #aZ/-traps, from their applica- 
tion to the purpose of galling horses, are implements 
used in war, to prevent or retard the advance of cavalry. 
They are made of iron, with four points, so formed 
that, whichever way they are placed, one point will 
always be erect. These implements being strewed on 
the ground over which the enemy's cavalry has to pass, 
have been found effectually to retard, if not prevent, 
any pursuit of a retreating army. They are frequently 
met with in the armorial ensigns of cavalry officers, as 
in those of Farrington, bart., whose ancestor was 
general of artillery. PI. vii., n. 3. Argent, three gal- 
traps, sable ; name, Trapps. 

GAME, so termed when the whole fore-leg of a lion, 
or other beast, is borne in arms. See PL xin., n. 1. 
If it is couped or erased near the middle joint, then it 
is called a paw. See PL xiv., n. 22. 

GARB, a sheaf of wheat or any other grain : if the 
blazon is "a garb " only, wheat is always understood ; 
in other cases the kind of grain must be expressed, as 
" a garb of oats," &c. PL vn., n. 14. 

GARDANT, signifies full-faced, looking right forward. 
PL ix., n. 1.* 

* It is now too late to attempt the correction of the terms 
gardant and regardant. It is quite clear that the former is only 
an abbreviation of the latter, a lion regarding, or looking at you. 

140 Dictionary [GAR-GIM. 


GARNISHED signifies ornamented, and is a term ap- 
plied to ornaments set on any charge whatsoever. 

GARTER, the half of a bendlet. PI. iv., n. 7. 

GAUNTLET, a glove plated with steel, that covered the 
hand of a cavalier, when armed cap-a-pie, at first with- 
out separation of the fingers, in which early form it is 
seen in charges. PI. xxxiv., n. 21, and PI. xxix., n. 24. 
In blazon, the word dexter or sinister must be expressed, 
as the charge may happen to be. 

AT GAZE, when a beast of chase, as the hart, is de- 
picted as afirontee, or full-faced. PI. ix., n. 13. 

GED, a Scotch term for the fish called a pike. Azure, 
three geds liauriant argent ; name, Ged. 


GEM-RING, a ring set with a gem or precious stone. 

GENET, a small animal of the fox species, but not 
bigger than a weasel, occasionally met with in 

GENOUILIER, a piece of armour that covers the knees. 

GERATTIE, an ancient term for powderings. 

GILLY-FLOWER, properly July flower, is a species of 
aromatic carnation. PI. xxiv., n. 12. Argent, three 
gilly-flowers, slipped proper ; name, Jorney. 

GIMBAL-RINGS. PI. xxx., n. 8. Argent, on a bend 
sable, three triple gimbal-rings or ; name, HawberJce, of 
Leicestershire. Sylvanus Morgan says, it would be 
more heraldic to say, three annulets interlaced in triangle. 

GIMMAL, or GEMMOW RING, is a ring of double hoops 

Regardant is now only applied to a lion looking behind him ; 
an attitude which would be more correctly described by Eetro- 
gardant, as we, indeed, find the Latin for it, Retrospiciens. 

GIR-GOR.] of Technical Terms. 141 

made to play into each other, and so to join two hands, 
and thus serves for a wedding-ring, which pairs the 
parties. The name is derived from Gemellus, Latin ; 
Jumeau, French. 




GLAZIERS' NIPPERS, or grater, a tool used by glaziers, 
and part of the arms of the Glaziers' Company. 
PL xxxni., n. 4. 

GLIDING ; this term is used for serpents, snakes, or 
adders, when moving forward fesswise. 

GOBONY, or GOBONATED, is the same as company, viz., 
it is always of one row of squares and no more. PL v., 
n. 13. 

GOLDEN FLEECE is the skin of a sheep, with its head 
and feet, hung up at its middle by a ring in a collar, 
all gold, as the example, PL xxvi., n. 8 : it is worn by 
the knights of that order in Spain, instituted by Philip, 
Duke of Burgundy. 

GOLPS are roundles of the purple tincture. PL vni., 
11. 15. 

GONFANNON, the banner, standard, or ensign of the 
Eoman Catholic Church, anciently always carried in 
the Popes' armies. The gonfannon is borne as an 
armorial figure, or common charge, by families abroad, 
on account of some of the family having been gon- 
fannoniers, i. e., standard-bearers to the church, as the 
Counts of Auvergne, in France. Or, a gonfannon gules, 
fringed vert. PL xxsiv., n. 28. 

GORGE, a term in Leigh for a water-bouget. 

GORGED, a term used to describe a lion or other 
animal having a crown by way of collar to its neck. 

142 Dictionary [GOR-GBI. 

GOEGET, a piece of armour for the neck. 

GRADIENT, a term applied to a tortoise walking. 

GKAIN-TREE. PI. XXXITI., n. 20. Three sprigs of 
this tree is the crest of the Dyers' Company. 

GRAND SEIGNIOE'S CEOWN is a turban, enriched with 
pearls and diamonds. PI. XLV., n. 6. 

GRAPPLING-IRON. PI. xxxn., n. 28. Azure, a chevron 
or, between three grappling-irons of three flukes, double- 
ringed at the top ; name, Stewins. 

GEASSHOPPEE. Amongst the Athenians grasshoppers 
were so much esteemed, that they wore gold ones in 
their hair, to denote their national antiquity, or that, 
like the CicadaB, they were the first-born of the earth. 
Among the Egyptians, the hieroglyphic of music. 
PI. xxvii., n. 5. 

GEAY, a term for a badger. See BAD GEE. 

GEEAVE, that part of armour that covers the leg from 
the knee to the foot. 

GREY-HOUND. See PI. xxix., n. 20. 

GEICES, young wild boars ; sometimes boars are bla- 
zoned Grices, in allusion to the bearer's name, Grice. 

GEIDIEON. PI. xxxv., n. 19. Argent, a chevron be- 
tween three gridirons, sable ; names, Laurence and Scott. 

GBIECES signifies steps, viz., a cross on three grieces. 
See PI. xxxvi., n. 19. 

GRIFFIN, an imaginary animal, compounded of the 
eagle and the lion. As a charge, it is common on 
ancient arms. Guillim blazons it rampant, alleging 
that any fierce animal may be so blazoned as well as 
the lion ; but segreant is the term generally used 
instead of rampant. PI. xxxv., n. 13. Argent, a griffin 
segreant azure, beaked or ; name, Culcheth. 

GRIFFIN, MALE : this chimerical creature is half an 

GBI-GYR.] of Technical Terms. 143 

eagle and half a lion, having large ears, but no wings, 
and rays of gold issuing from various parts of its body. 
PI. xxxv., n. 2. 

GRINGOLLEE, A CROSS, a term for crosses, saltiers, &c., 
whose extremities end with the heads of serpents. 
PI. xxxvii., n. 12. 

GRITTIE, a term for a shield composed equally of 
metal and colour. 

GOIDON, or GUIDHOMME. A small standard some- 
times called an ANCIENT. 

GULES signifies the colour red, and in engraving is 
represented by perpendicular lines. PI. n. Ghul, in 
the Persian language, signifies a rose, or rose-colour, 
and the heraldic term is supposed to have been im- 
ported from the East. 

GUN-STONE, an ancient term for a pellet. 

GURGES, or a whirlpool. This is the arms of the 
family named Gorges. See PI. xxv., n. 6. The 
whirlpool is always borne proper, therefore there is no 
occasion for naming the field, because the whole is 
azure and argent, and takes up all the field, representing 
the rapid motion of the water turning round. 

GUTTY, or guttee, from the Latin gutta, a drop, is 
said of a field, or bearing, filled with drops. See PI. vm. 
n. 8, and page 27. 

GUZES are roundles of the sanguine murrey or blood- 

GYRON, a Spanish word signifying a gore, gusset, or 
triangular piece of cloth. PI. v., n. 1. Menestrier gives 
examples of gyrons in the arms of Giron in Spain, of 
which family are descended the Dukes of Ossone, who 
carry three gyrons in their arms clearly to symbolise 
their name ; but which, he says, represent three tri- 

144 Dictionary [GYR-HAI. 

angular pieces of stuff, or gussets, of the coat- armour of 
Alphonsus the Sixth, King of Spain, who, fighting in 
battle against the Moors, had his horse killed, and, 
being in danger was rescued, and remounted, by Don 
Roderico de Cissneres, who cut off three triangular 
pieces, or gussets, of the king's coat-armour, which he 
kept as a testimony, to show the king afterwards that 
he was the man who saved him : for which the king 
advanced him to honour, graced his armorial bearing 
with three gyrons, PI. 6, n. 1 ; and adorned it with a 
horse for a crest, to perpetuate to posterity the relief he 
gave the king, another example of the practice of in- 
venting stories to account for heraldic charges. Note. 
When there is only one gyron in a coat, you may 
blazon thus, argent, a gyron sable, without mentioning 
the point from whence it issues, the dexter chief point 
being the usual fixed place. But if it stand in any 
other part of the shield, it must then be expressed. 

GYRONNY is where a field is divided into six, eight, 
ten, or twelve triangular parts, of two different tinctures, 
and the points all uniting in the centre of the field ; 
gyrons signify unity, because they are never borne 
single. PI. v., n. 23. Gyronny of eight, argent and sable; 
name, Mawgyron. 

HABECK, an instrument used by the clothiers in dress- 
ing cloth, two of them differing from each other in 
form, as PI. xxv., n. 9. That on the dexter is copied 
from the tool, which is invariably made in that form ; 
the other, on the sinister, shows the form in which it 
is painted in the arms of the Clothiers' Company. 

HABERGEON, a short coat of mail, consisting of a 
jacket without sleeves. PI. xxiv., n. 17. 


HAL-HAR.] ' of Technical Terms. 145 

HALF-BELT. PI. xxiv., n. 3. Gules, two "half-belts 
and buckles, argent ; name, Pelham. 

HALF-SPEAR, a term for a spear with a short handle. 
PL xxiv., n. 18. 

HALF-SPADE. Azure, three half-spades or, the sides of 
the spade to the sinister. PL xxv., n. 16 ; name, Daven- 

HAND DEXTER, the right hand. PL xxxv., n. 32. 

HAND SINISTER, the left hand. PL xxxv., n. 33. 
Argent, three sinister hands, couped at the wrist gules; 
name, Maynard. 

HARP, the well-known musical instrument, the tones 
of which are produced from strings struck with the 
fingers. It appears to have been used from the earliest 
antiquity among the Hebrews, Greeks, and Eomans, 
though differing considerably in shape and in the 
number of its strings. The harp was the favourite 
musical instrument of the Britons and other Northern 
nations in the middle ages ; and the high estimation in 
which it was held by the Welch and Irish is proverbial. 
It is naturally, therefore, very frequently met with as 
an armorial bearing, and is usually represented as 
PL xxxii., n. 17. The arms of the kingdom of Ireland 
are, azure, a harp or, stringed argent, now introduced 
into the royal achievement of Great Britain and Ire- 

HARPOON, an instrument used for spearing whales. 
PL xxv., n. 7. 

HARPY, a poetical monster, feigned to have the face 
and breast of a virgin, and body and legs like a vulture 
PL viii., n. 2. Azure, a harpy with her wings disclosed, 
her hair flotant or, armed of the same. This coat stands 
in Huntingdon church. 


146 Dictionary [HAR-HEA. 

HAKINGTON KNOT, a badge of the family of Ha- 
rington. See PI. xxxn., n. 33. And also under FRET. 

HARROWS are instruments used in husbandry. Ermine, 
three triangular harrows, conjoined in the nombril point, 
gules, with a wreath argent and of the second, toothed or ; 
name, Harrow. PI. XLI., n. 11. 

HART, a stag ; properly one in its sixth year. 

HARVEST-FLY. Sable, a harvest-fly in pale, volant, 
argent; name, Bolowre. PI. xxvi., n. 22. 

HAT-BAND. PI. xxx., n. 21. Chiles, a chevron between 
three hat-bands argent ; name, Maynes. 

HATCHMENT is the coat of arms of a person dead, 
usually placed on the front of a house. See HATCH- 
MENTS, PI. xx. 

HAUBERK, a coat of mail. 

HAURIANT, a term applied to fishes when represented 
palewise or erect, as if they were refreshing themselves 
by sucking in the air. PI. x., n. 4. 

HAWK, a bird of prey, and for its size a very bold 
and courageous bird, much used in heraldry. PL ix., 
n. 20. 

HAWK'S BELL. PI. xxxi., n. 35. Or, on afess azure, 
three hawks' bells of the first ; name, PlanJce. 


HAY-FORK. PI. xxvm., n. 8. Argent, a hay-fork 
between three mullets, sable, is the arms of Conyngham. 
This bearing, also called a SHAKE-FORK, is more 
properly termed by the French a Pal-fourcha, i. e., a 
Pale couped, forked, and pointed. We suspect that 
the appellation hay or shake fork is of popular and not 
heraldic origin. 

HEAD IN PROFILE ; the head and side face couped at 
the neck. See PI. XL., n. 21. 

HEA-HEM.] of Technical Terms. 147 

HEART. The heart is blazoned a human heart, anct 
sometimes a body heart. Gules, a chevron argent, between 
three hearts or ; name, Frebody. See PI. xxix., n. 21. 

HEA.TH-COCK. PI. xxxm., n. 18. 

HEDGE-HOG. Azure, three hedgehogs or; names, 
Abrahall and Herries. PI. xxvi., n. 6. 

HELMETS. The helmet is armour for the head. The 
ancients used to adorn them with some kind of mon- 
strous device, as the head, mouth, or paw of a lion, to 
make them appear more terrible. But the mediaeval 
practice was to place upon them figures of animals, or 
other objects 'by which they might be known, and 
which they called crests. PI. XLII. 

The first is the helmet of a king, prince, or royal 
duke, and is of gold, fuilrfaced, with six bars. 

The second is the helmet of a marquis, earl, viscount, 
and baron, which is of steel in profile, open-faced, and 
with five gold bars. 

The third helmet, standing directly forward, with 
the beaver open, and without bars, for a knight or 
baronet. It should be of plain steel. 

The fourth is a plain steel helmet sidewise, with the 
beaver close, which is for all esquires and gentlemen. 

If two helmets are to be placed on the top of a 
shield, for the crests to be thereon, they must be 
placed facing one another, as if two persons were 
looking at each other ; but if three helmets are to be 
placed as before-mentioned, the middlemost must stand 
directly forward, and the other two on the side facing 
towards it, like two persons looking upon the third. 



HEMP-BREAK, an instrument to make hemp soft and 

148 Dictionary [HIL-ICI. 

fit for use. PI. xxxiv., n. 10. Argent, three hemp-breaks 
sable ; name, Hampsone or Hamston, alderman of London. 
HILTED, a term for the handle of a sword. 

HONOUR-POINT is that point next above the centre 

of the shield, and is expressed by the letter D, Table I. 

HORSE. Frequently met with as a charge in 

heraldry. Sable, a horse argent, bridled gules ; name, 

Trott. PL xxxi., n. 8. 

HORSE-SHOE. This is the arms of Okeham, a town 
in Eutlandshire. In this town is an ancient custom, 
if any nobleman enters the lordship, as an homage he 
is to forfeit one of his horse's shoes, unless he redeem 
it with money. See PI. xxix., n. 17. Argent, six horse- 
shoes sable, 3, 2, 1 ; name, Ferrers. 

HUMETTY, or HUMETTEE, signifies an ordinary, which 
is cut off, and nowhere reaches the edges of the shield. 
See PI. xxxvi., n. 14. 

HURTS are roundles of the azure-colour. PI. vni., 
n. 12. 

HYACINTH is a precious stone of a yellowish-red 
hue, and in heraldry is used to express the colour 
tenne. See COLOUR. 

HYDRA, a fabulous creature, supposed to be a dragon 
with seven heads, as PI. xxiv., n. 21. This is the 
crest of Barret. 

IBEX is an imaginary beast, in some respects like 
the heraldic antelope, but with this difference, that it 
has two straight horns projecting from the forehead, 
serrated, or edged like a saw. PI. xxxn., n. 4. 

ICICLES are in shape the same as gutty. Various 
are the opinions concerning this bearing ; some term 

IMB-INC.] of Technical Terms. 149 

them clubs, others guttees reversed, and others icicles. 
See PI. xxxv., n. 15. 

IMBATTLED, or Crenelle, a term for the battlements 
of towers, churches, and houses, and is one of the lines 
of partition, PI. in. See an example, PI. XL., n. 4, a 
fess gules imbattled. 


IMBRUED signifies anything to be bloody, as spears' 
heads, when spotted with blood, as the example. Sable, 
a chevron between three spear-heads argent, their points 
imbrued proper; name, Jefferies, of Brecknockshire. 
PL xxxv., n. 35. 

To IMPALE is to conjoin two coats of arms palewise : 
women impale their arms with those of their husbands. 
See PL XL., n. 3. 

IMPERIAL CROWN is a circle of gold, adorned with 
precious stones and pearls, heightened with fleurs-de-lis, 
bordered and seeded with pearls, enclosing a sort of 
mitre, divided in the centre, and between the two por- 
tions an arched fillet, enriched with pearls, and sur- 
mounted of a mound, whereon is a cross of pearls. 
PL XLV., n. 3. 

IMPERIALLY CROWNED, when any charge in arms, 
crest, or supporters, is crowned with a regal crown. 

INCENSED, a term for panthers, when represented 
with fire issuing from their mouths and ears. See 
PL xxxi., n. 7. 


INCRESCENT shows the state of the moon, from her 
entrance into her first quarter, by having her horns 
towards the right side of the shield. PL viz., n. 7. 
Ermine, three increscents, gules ; name, Symmes, of Da- 
ventry, in the county of Northampton. 

150 Dictionary [IND-IXV. 

INDENTED, one of the lines of partition, in shape the 
same as dancette, but its teeth smaller, and the number 
not limited. See PI. in., and argent, a border indented 
azure. PI. v., n. 11. 

INDIAN GOAT, or Assyrian goat, resembles the Eng- 
lish goat, except that its horns are more bent, and the 
ears like those of a talbot. PI. xxxiv., n. 2. These 
beasts are the supporters of the arms of Viscount 

INDORSED. This term is for wings or other charges 
when placed back to back. See PI. xxxv., n. 16, viz., 
two wings indorsed. PI. XL., n. 16., two keys indorsed. 

INESCUTCHEON, a small escutcheon, borne within the 
shield, and usually placed in the fess-point. PI. v., n. 
7. JErmine, an inescutcheon azure ; name, Rokeley. 





INK-MOLINE, or Ink de Moline. See MILLRINE. 


INTER, the Latin for between. 

INTERLACED ; when chevronels, annulets, rings, keys, 
crescents, &c., are linked together, they are termed 
interlaced, viz., three chevronels interlaced in base. 
PI. xxxv., n. 30. A cross of four bastoons interlaced. 
PI. xxxvi. , n. 15. 

INVECTED, one of the lines of partition ; the same 
form as engrailed, but the points of it turning inward 
to the charge. PL in. See the difference in PI. xix., 
n. 14. Argent, a fess invected, gules, between three 
torteaux. In the same place, n. 13, is argent on a fess 
engrailed, gules, three leopards' faces, or. 

INV-JES.] of Technical Terms. 151 

INVERTED. Inverted denotes anything that is turned 
the wrong way ; particularly wings are said to be 
inverted when the points of them are down. PI. x., 
n. 2. 

IRON KING, a tool used by the wire-drawers, and 
borne as a part of their armorial ensign, PI. xxxiv., 
n. 15. 

ISSUANT, or ISSUING, signifies the charge to be 
coming out of the bottom of the chief, as the example. 
Azure on a chief or, a demi-lion issuing gules ; name, 
Markham. PI. x., n. 9. 

JAMES, ST., CROSS OF, so termed because worn by the 
knights of that order in Spain. PI. xxxvi., n. 23. 

JAVELIN, or short spear, with a barbed point. 
PI. xxxiv., n. 25. 

JELLOP, JELLOPED, terms occasionally used in bla- 
zonry to describe the comb of a cock, cockatrice, &c., 
when borne of a tincture different from that of the 

JERSEY COMB, used by the wool-combers. PI. xxx., 
n. 2. Sable, three Jersey combs or, teeth argent ; name, 

JERUSALEM, CROSS OF, so termed from Godfrey of 
Bouillon's bearing argent, a cross-crosslet cantoned 
with four crosses, or, in allusion to the five wounds of 
Christ. PL xxxix., n. 13. 

JESSANT signifies a lion or any beast rising or issu- 
ing from the middle of a fess, as PI. xxxv., n. 26. The 
common method of heraldic writers is a lion jessant of 
a fess. But Edrnondson is clearly of opinion that it 
should be blazoned a demi-lion jessant of a fess, as never 
more than half the lion appears. 

This term is also. used to express shooting forth, as 

152 Dictionary [JES-KEY. 

vegetables spring or shoot out, and occasionally to 
signify throwing out, as fleurs-de-lis out of a leopard's 
face ; for instance, sable, three leopards' faces jessant 
fleurs-de-lis or ; for Morley of Sussex. PL xn., n. 20. 
Edmondson says, an erroneous practice has long been 
established among heralds, when showing the leopard's 
face jessant de Us, of always turning the head bottom 
upwards ; whereas the contrary position should be con- 
stantly observed, unless otherwise directed by the words 
of the blazon, viz., a leopard's face reversed, jessant 
de Us. 

JESSED is a term used in blazoning a hawk or 
falcon, whose jesses, or straps of leather that tie the 
bells on the legs, are of a different tincture from the 

JESSES, leather thongs, to tie the bells on the legs of 
the hawk and falcon. They are sometimes represented 
flotant, with rings at the end, as the example, 
PI. xxxvii., n. 13. A hawk's leg erased at the thigh, 
jessed and belled. 

JEW'S HARP. PI. xxx., n. 11, as born in the arms 
of Scopham. 


JOWLOPPED describes the gills of a cock, when of a 
different tincture from his head ; same as JELLOPED. 

JULIAN, ST., CROSS OF, by some called a saltire crossed 
at its extremities; by others a cross transposed. 
PL xxxvii., n. 24. Argent, a Julian cross sable, for 
Julian, of Lincolnshire. 

JUPITER, one of the planets ; in heraldry it signifies 
the colour azure, and in engraving is expressed by 
horizontal lines. 

KEYS INDORSED. PL XL., n. 16. Example, two 

KIN-LAM.] of Technical Terms. 153 

indorsed, tlie boics interlaced sable ; name, Masquenay, or 

KING-FISHER. This beautiful bird is occasionally 
met with in armorial bearings. PI. xvi., n. 2, or three 
Icing -fishers proper ; name, Fisher. 

KNOTS. Various kinds of knots are borne as badges 
by several families. The principal varieties are 

BOTTCHIER'S KNOT. PI. xxxn., n. 32. 


DACRE'S KNOT. PI. xxxn., n. 35. 

HARINGTON'S KNOT ; this is the usual heraldic fret, 
and is a common bearing. PI. xxxn., n. 33. 

LACT'S KNOT. PL xxxvii., n. 11. 

STAFFORD'S KNOT. PI. xxxii., n. 31. 

WAKE'S KNOT. PI. xxxii., n. 34. 

LABEL. Used to difference the arms of the eldest 
son from the younger ones. PI. v., n. 3. See PL x., 
n. 1, in the distinction of houses. 

LABELS are also ribbons that hang down from a 
mitre or coronet. 

LACT'S KNOT. See PL xxxvii., n. 11. 

LAMB, or Holy Lamb, passant, with a staff, cross 
and banner, is a typical figure of Our Saviour, who is 
understood to be that Lamb mentioned in the Apoca- 
lypse of St. John. PL xxxi., n. 25. 

LAMBEAUX, A CROSS, is a cross-pattee at the top, and 
issuing out at the foot into three labels. PL xxxvi., 
n. 21. Gules, a cross lambeaux argent ; this is a Ger- 
man coat ; name, EudetzJcer. 

LAMBREQUIN is a mantle or hood, intervening be- 
tween the helmet and crest, and always represented 
flotant ; also a name formerly given to the points of 
a label. 

154 Dictionary [LAM-LEG. 

LAMP. PI. xxviir., n. 12. Gules, a chevron, between 
three lamps argent, with fire proper ; name, Farmer. 

LANCE, or tilting-spear, argent on a quarter, a lance 
in bend or; name, Knight. See PI. xxxiv., n. 6. 

LANGUED (French langue, of langue, the tongue) is 
a term for the tongues of beasts and birds, when of a 
different tincture from that of the charge. All beasts 
and birds (except they are tinctured gules) are langued 
gules ; but when the beast is gules, he must be langued 
and armed azure. This rule is never to be deviated 
from, except in cases only where the blazon directs 
that the beast should be langued of any other colour 
or metal; and then such colour or metal must be 
expressed. If a beast or bird is to be represented in 
coat-armour, without either tongue or claws, you must 
say, when blazoning, sans langue and arms. 

LARMES, the French for tears ; see GUTTEE. 


LAUREL is frequently met with as a bearing, as 
well in wreaths and branches, as in sprigs and leaves. 

LAVERPOT, or ewer, as borne in the arms of the 
Founders' Company. PI. xxxiv., n. 6. 

LAZARUS, ST., CROSS OF, worn by the knights of that 
order. PI. xxxvi., n. 24. 

LEASH, a tierce, or three of a kind ; as three bucks, 
hares, &c. ; also a leathern thong, by which falconers 
held the hawk on their hand : a term also applied to 
the line attached to the collar of a greyhound or 
other dog. 

LEATHER-BOTTLE, as borne in the arms of the Bottle- 
makers' and Homers' Company. PI. xxx., n. 5. 

LEGS IN ARMOUR, three legs in armour, conjoined in the 
fess point, spurred and garnished or : this is the arms of 

LEN-LIN.] of Technical Terms. 155 

the Isle of Man. See PL XL., n. 1. Nisbet says, 
"three legs of men, the device of the Sicilians, the 
ancient possessors of the Isle of Man." 

LENTALLY, an ancient term for parti/ per bend. 

LEOPARD. This well-known animal is rarely seen 
entire as a charge in ancient coats, and its name is 
given to the lion in certain attitudes. See LION. 
PI. xxxi., n. 30, presents us with a modern example. 
Sable, three leopards rampant argent, spotted sable ; name, 
Lynch. It is, however, probably, from the name, that 
the Lynx was the animal originally represented in this 

LEOPARD'S FACE. When the heads of leopards are 
erased or couped at the neck, as Plate xxxv., n. 22, 
they are blazoned by the word head, viz., a leopard's 
head erased : but if no part of the neck appears, and 
the position of the head is gardant, as PI. xxxv., n. 
21, it is then blazoned a leopard's face, without men- 
tioning the word gardant, which is always implied. 


LEVEL. PI. xxvii., n. 24. Azure, three levels with 
their plummets or ; name, CoJbrand. 

LEVER, a name sometimes given to the cormorant. 

LILIES OF THE FLAG are those borne in the arms of 
the kingdom of France. See FLEUR-DE-LIS. 

LIMBECK, or STILL. Heralds term it an antique 
limbeck ; this example is part of the Pewterers' arms, 
PI. XXXIIL, n. 12. 

LINED, having a line affixed to the collar of a dog or 
other animal, which are frequently collared of one tinc- 
ture, and lined, or chained, of another. The term is 
also applied to the inner covering or lining of a mantle, 
robe, cap, &c. 

156 Dictionary [LIN-LIO. 


LION. The true heraldic lion, according to French 
authors, is always to be represented in profile, or, as 
the ancient heralds say, showing but one eye and one 
ear. His attitude, also, should always be rampant or 
ravaging. When passant and full-faced, they blazoned 
him a leopard, vide Lion Leoparde : in England, how- 
ever, the lions in the royal and other achievements 
have always been blazoned as lions, however depicted 
since the time of Henry III., in whose reign they were 
called " Leopards:' 

LION OF ENGLAND. This term is used when speaking 
of a canton, or augmentation of arms. In such case, 
instead of saying on a canton gules, a lion passant gar- 
dant or, as an augmentation, you say, he bears on a 
canton a lion of England, which hath the same significa- 

LION LEOPARDE. This is a French term for what 
the English call a lion passant gardant. The word 
leopard is always made use of by the French heralds to 
express in their language, a lion full-faced, or gardant. 
Thus, when a lion is placed on an escutcheon in that 
attitude which we call rampant gardant, the French 
blazon it a lion leoparde ; when he is passant only, they 
call him leopard Hone. 

LION OF ST. MARK. A winged lion, as borne in the 
arms of the republic of Venice, viz., a lion sejant gar- 
dant and winged or, his legs encircled with a glory, holding 
in his fore-paws an open book, wherein is written, Pax tibi 
Marce, evangelista meus ; over the dexter side of the book, 
a sword erect, all proper. PI. xxxn., n. 24. 

LioN-PoissoN, or sea-lion, so termed as the upper 
part is of a lion, and the hinder part ends in a fish's 

LIO-LOZ.] of Technical Terms. 157 

tail, with webbed feet; this is borne by Irihoff of 
Germany. This example was copied from the family 
seal. PL xxxii., n. 20. 

LION-DRAGON, the upper half a lion, and the other 
going off like the hinder part of a dragon. PI. xxxn., 
n. 21. Or, a lion-dragon gules, armed, langued, and 
crowned of the first ; name, Bretigni. Party per chevron, 
gules or, three lion-dragons ducally crowned and counter- 
changed; name, Easton. 

JJIONS CONJOINED, under one head ; see TRICOR- 
PORATED, and PI. xxxii., n. 22. 

LITVIT'S SKIN, a pure white fur. 

LIZARD, a small animal of the crocodile species, 
generally painted green. PL xxvin., n. 6. 

LOBSTER. In blazon the term upright is given to all 
shell-fish when borne as the example, because they, 
wanting fins, cannot properly be termed hauriant. 
PL xxxi., n. 32. 

LocHABER-AxE. The ancient arms of the High- 
landers: see PL xxxvi., n. 8; and two more in 
PL xxix., n. 18. 

LODGED, a term for the buck, hart, &c., when resting 
or lying on the ground. This term is used for beasts 
of chase as couchant is for those of prey. PL ix., n. 17. 
PL xiv., n. 18. Argent, on a mount proper, a stag lodged, 
gules; name, Sdrthill. 

LONG Bow, bend in pale, gules ; name, Bowes. See 
PL xxix., n. 14. 

LOZENGE, a four-cornered figure, resembling a pane 
of glass in old casements. PL vi., n. 17. 

LOZENGES, CROSS OF. PL xxxvi., n. 17. Gules, a 
cross of lozenges, flory or ; name, Fotherby. PL xxxix. 
n. 15. 

158 Dictionary [LOZ MAI. 

LOZENGY is when the field or charge is covered with 
lozenges. PI. v., n. 21. Lozengy, argent and gules; 
name, Fitzwilllam. 

LUCY, an old term for the fish called a pike. 
PI. xxix., n. 7. 

LUMIERES are the eyes. 

LTJJSTA is the Latin for the moon : in blazoning by 
the planets, it is used in heraldry instead of argent. 

A LURE, two wings conjoined with their tips down- 
wards, joined with a line and ring, used by falconers* to 
decoy their hawks, by casting it up in the air like a 
fowl. PI. xxxi., n. 34. Gules, a lure, stringed and braced 
argent; name, Wavre. 

LURE also signifies two wings conjoined and inverted, 
which, with the tips downward, are said to be in lure. 
PI. x., n. 2. 


LYMPHAD is an old-fashioned ship with one mast, and 
rowed with oars. PI. xxxiv., n. 4. 

LYRE, a musical instrument. See PI. xxxvi., n. 28. 

MADDER BAG. See PI. xxxvm., n. 1. 

MAIDEN'S HEAD, a term for the head and neck of a 
woman, couped below the breast, the head wreathed 
with a garland of roses, and crowned with an antique 
coronet. See PI. xxvi., n. 2. 

MAIL, armour for the body and arms, composed of 
small close rings, termed mail, or ring armour, as if 
woven in a loom. The rings composing this armour 
were woven together in different ways : the ancient sort 
were not very complex ; but those of later times had 
the work done in so curious a manner, that ornament 
was combined with strength, preventing the effects of 
sword or lance. Mail, when painted or engraved, is 

MAL-HAK.] of Technical Terms. 159 

made like the scales of fish, which are the best resem- 
blance of the mail. See PI. xxrv., n. 17. 

MALLET. PI. xxx., n. 24. Gules, a chevron between 
three mallets or ; name, Soame. 

MALTA, CROSS OF, so called because worn by the 
knights of that order. PI. xxxvi., n. 25. 

MANACLES, or handcuffs. PI. xxxiv., n. 29. 

MANCHE, or MAUNCH, a sleeve of the fashion of the 
12th century. PI. vn., n. 13. 

MANCHET, a cake of bread not unlike a muffin. 

MANED, the term used in blazoning the mane or 
neck-hair of horses, unicorns, tigers, or other animals, 
when their manes are of a different tincture from the 

MAN TIGEK, or MANTICOBA, an imaginary monster, 
with body like a lion, face like a man, and horns on 
the head, like those of an ox. PI. XLL, n. 9. 

MANTLE. PI. xxxix., n. 24. 

MANTLINGS are ornamented foliage-work for the 
adorning of helmets in paintings of coats of arms. 

MAKCASSIN, a young wild boar, distinguished from 
the old by its tail being drawn as hanging down; 
whereas the old boar's is curled, with the end only 
pointing downward. 

MARINED, a term used for an animal which has the 
lower part of its body like a fish. See PI. XXXIL, n. 20. 
PL xxxi., n. 29. 

MARINE-WOLF, or Seal. It resembles a quadruped in 
some respects, and a fish in others. Seals are common 
on most of the rocky shores of Great Britain ; they 
feed on most sorts of fish, and are seen searching for 
their prey near shore ; their head in swimming is 
always above water ; they sleep on rocks surrounded 

160 Dictionary [MAR-HAS. 

by the sea ; they are extremely watchful, and never 
sleep long without moving ; but, if disturbed by 
anything, take care to tumble over the rocks into the 
sea. PI. xxvi., n. 11. Argent, a chevron engrailed 
gules, "between three marine wolves naiant sable, finned of 
the first, langued of the second ; name, Fennor. 




MARS, the name of one of the planets ; in heraldry 
signifies the colour gules, and in engraving is repre- 
sented by perpendicular lines. 

MARTLET (very frequent in armories all over Europe). 
This bird (known as the house-martin) is frequently 
seen under the cornices of houses, with feet so short 
and wings so long, that should it settle on a level 
it could not easily rise; therefore, it alights on 
high places, that it may drop on the wing. See 
PI. vii., n. 15. This bird is represented in heraldry 
without feet, and given for a difference to the fourth 
son. PI. XXVIL, n. 4 ; also PI. XIIL, n. 17. 

MASCALLY, argent and gules, counterly ; names, Pogeis 
and Pegg. See PI. xxxix., n. 8. 

MASCLE, from Macula, the mesh of a net. This 
figure is of a lozenge form, and perforated, as the 
example. It differs from the fusil in being shorter and 
broader, and always voided. PL vi., n. 19. Argent, a 
mascle, gules. 

MASCLES, conjunct, argent, seven mascles conjunct, three, 
three, and one, gules. PI. xxxiv., n. 32. 

MASCLES, CROSS OF. PI. xxxvi., n. 12. 

MASONED, a term applied to plain strokes, repre- 

MAT-MID.] of Technical Terms. 161 

senting the cement in stone buildings. PI. xxxvm., 
n. 27. 

MATCH, as used by artillerymen to fire cannon, is a 
kind of rope, twisted and prepared in a peculiar manner. 
It is made of hempen tow, spun on the wheel, like cord, 
but very slack ; and is composed of three twists, boiled 
in a preparation of saltpetre, &c. PL XXVIIL, n. 4, 
Argent, on a fess gules, between two matches kindled 
proper, a martlet or ; name, Leet. 

MATCHLOCK, a peculiar kind of gun-lock fired by a 
match, formerly much used. PL xxv., n. 12. Argent, a 
chevron between three matchlocks, sable ; name, Leverage. 

MEMBERED, the term used in blazoning the beak 
and legs of a bird, when of a different tincture from the 

MERCURY, one of the planets, in heraldry signifies 
the colour purple. 

MERILLION, an instrument used by the hatband - 
makers, and borne as part of their arms. PL xxxiv.. 
n. 1. 

MERMAID, a fictitious sea animal, half a woman and 
half a fish, used in armories, as represented in the 
example. PL xrv., n. 4. Argent, a mermaid gules, crined 
or, holding a mirror in her right hand, and a comb in her 
left; name, Ellis. 

MESLE, an ancient term for a field composed equally 
of metal and colour, as gyronny, paly, bendy, &c. 

MI-COUPY, and MIPARTEE, a French term when the 
half of the shield is divided per fess and per pale. 

MIDDLE-BASE is the middle part of the base, repre- 
sented by the letter H, Table 1. 

MIDDLE-CHIEF is the middle part of the chief, repre- 
sented by the letter B, Table 1. 


162 Dictionary [MIL-MOL. 

MiLL-Pic, an instrument used by mill-wrights. PL 
XXVIIL, n. 17. Sable, on a chevron between three mill-pics, 
argent, as many mullets gules; name, Mosley. See 
another shape, PI. XXXVIL, n. 5. 

MILL-CLACK, represented as the example. PI. xxxvu., 
n. 23. 

MILL-RIND, or RINE, is the iron fixed to the centre of 
a mill-stone, by which the wheel turns it ; termed iri 
French, fer-de-moline, or mill-iron. 

MILL-STONE, charged with a mill-rine, PI. xxxin., 
n. 11. Azure, three mill-stones argent : name, Milverton. 

MILL-RINE, A CEOSS ; so termed, as its form is like the 
mill-rind, which carries the mill-stone, and is perforated 
as that is. PI. vi., n. 14 and 15. 

MINIVER, MENU-VAIK, a white fur, said to be the 
belly part of the skin of the Siberian squirrel. 

MITRE is a round cap, pointed and divided at the 
top, from which hang two pendants, fringed at both 
ends. The mitres used by all archbishops and bishops 
are surrounded at bottom with a plain fillet of gold, 
PL XLIII., n. 12 ; excepting that of the palatinate bishop 
of Durham, which issues out of a ducal coronet.* See 
PL XLIII., n. 11. These ornaments are never actually 
worn in England, except by the Roman Catholic pre- 
lates, but merely depicted on coats of arms. In Ger- 
many several families bear the mitre for their crest, to 
show that they are advocates for, or feudatories of, 
ancient abbeys, or officers of bishops. 

MOLE, the little animal so called, when used in 
heraldry is represented as PL xxvi., n. 12. Argent, 

* It has been considered that archbishops have the right of 
using the ducal coronet ; but, according to the best authorities, 
it belongs solely to the arms of the see of Durham. 

of Technical Terms. 1 63 

three moles sable, their snouts and feet gules; name, 

MOLE-HILL, as the example, PI. xxiv., n. 19. 

MOLINE, A CROSS, not so wide or so sharp as that 
which is called ancred. T. 6, n. 2. Argent, a cross 
moline gules ; name, Undal. The cross moline is used 
as a distinction for the eighth brother. See DISTINCTION 

MONKEY, the well-known animal so called, when 
used in heraldry is represented as in nature ; but if 
collared, the collar is placed round the loins, instead 
of the neck, as shown in the example, PI. xxvi., n. 1 4. 

MOOR-COCK, an heraldic representation of the male 
of the black game, or large black grouse. Argent, a 
moor-cock sable ; name, Moore. PI. xxvi., n. 19. 

MORION, a steel cap or helmet for the head, anciently 
worn by foot-soldiers, and variously shaped ; see PI. 
xxvin., n. 24 ; and another in PI. xxix., n. 22. This is 
borne by the Earl of Cardigan* Argent, a chevron 
gules, between three morions azure. 


MORTAR, PI. xxx., n. 23. Sable, a mortar and pestle 
gules; name, Wakerly. 

MORTCOURS are lamps used at funerals ; they are 
borne as part of the Wax-Chandlers' arms. PI. xxxiv., 
n. 31. 

MORTIER, a cap of state formerly worn in France by 
some of the judicial dignitaries, as the President of 
the Chamber of Deputies, the Chancellor, and the Chief 

MORTNE is a term Colombiere has applied to a lion 
that has neither tongue, teeth, nor claws, which, he 

* And is a chapeau or Knight's cap, not a morion. ED. 

164 Dictionary [MOT-MUL. 

says, is borne by Leon, an ancient barony in Brittany. 
PI. xxvi., n. 1. The term signifies, literally, still-born, 
and is used by French, heralds to describe an animal 
divested of its natural means of defence and sustenance. 

MOTTO, a word or short sentence, inserted in a scroll, 
under, and sometimes over, a coat of arms. Mottoes are 
frequently allusive to the name of the bearer, and more 
frequently to the bearings ; and in general are short 
quaint sayings, of the nature of an axiom or epigraph, 
expressive of the predominant passion, moral or reli- 
gious sentiment, of the first adopter, or of some action 
for which he was distinguished. They are not strictly 
hereditary, like the arms, but may be varied or relin- 
quished at pleasure. By the rules of heraldry, mottoes 
are not permitted to women, unless they are sovereigns. 

MOUND (from the French monde, Latin mundus, the 
world) is a name given to a ball or globe, which forms 
part of the regalia of an emperor or king. It is an 
emblem of sovereign authority and majesty, and is 
surmounted by a cross, usually the cross pattee, in all 
Christian countries. PI. xxvii., n. 18. 

MOUNT, a hillock, or elevation of ground, usually 
arched, and blazoned vert. 

MOUNTAIN CAT. See PI. xxvi., n. 16. 

MOUNTED, a term applicable to a horse bearing a 
rider ; also frequently used to describe a cross placed 
upon steps. 

MOURN, a term for the blunted head of a tilting- 

MOUSSUE, A CROSS, for a cross rounded off at the 
ends. PL XXXVIL, n. 20. 

MULLET, supposed to be the rowel of a spur, and 
should consist of five points only ; whereas stars con- 

MUB-MUS.] of Technical Terms. 165 

sist of six, or more. T. 7, n. 1. Argent, a mullet 
gules ; name, Haye. Some have confounded stars and 
mullets together, which mistake is easily rectified by- 
allowing mullets to consist of five points only, and 
stars of six, eight, or more. Bara says, mullets differ 
from stars by being always pierced in the middle ; 
Gibbon says, all French authors take the mullet 
for the rowel of a spur, which molette signifies in 
their language; and they affirm it must be always 

Mr. Nisbet says, he ordinarily takes mullets for 
stars in blazon, when they accompany celestial figures, 
as those in the arms of Baillie ; but when they accom- 
pany military instruments, and other pieces of armour, 
for spur-rowels : as also when they have no such 
figures with them, but are alone in the shield, consist- 
ing only of five points, as in the arms of Sutherland, 
Douglas, &c. 

MURAILLE, a term used to express any ordinary that 
is walled, as PL XLL, n. 12. Azure, on a pale muraille 
with three pieces on each side, or, an indorse sable ; name, 

MURAL CROWN was made of gold, with battlements 
on the edge of its circle, and was given by the Romans 
to him who first mounted the wall of a besieged town 
or city, and fixed the standard belonging to the army. 
PL XLV., n. 23. 


MUSCHETOR signifies an ermine- spot, without those 
three spots over them that are used in ermine. 

MUSIMON, a beast which is said to be engendered 
between a goat and a ram. PL XL., n. 20. 

MUSION, an ancient term for a cat. 

166 Dictionary [MUZ-OBS. 

MUZZLED : the bear is generally so represented in 

NAIANT, swimming, applied to fish when borne 
horizontally across the field in a swimming posture. 
PI. x., n. 3. 

NAISSANT, coming out, applied to a lion, or other 
creature, that seems to be coming out of the middle 
of an ordinary or charge, as PI. xxxv., n. 26. 

NAKCTSSUS, a flower consisting of six petals, each 
resembling the leaf of the cinquefoil. PI. xxxiv., n. 8. 

NAVAL CROWN. Claudius, after surprising the 
Britons, invented this as a reward for service at sea ; 
it was made of gold, and consisted of prows of galleys 
and sails placed upon the rim or circle, alternately. 
It is now formed of the sterns and square sails of 
ships, instead of prows, placed alternately on the 
circle or fillet. PI. XLV., n. 22. 

NEBULE, one of the partition lines, signifies clouded, 
and is used when the outlines of an ordinary or parti- 
tion line run arched in and out, or waved so as to 
resemble clouds, as PI. in. 

NoMBRiL-PoiNT, or navel-point, is that part of the 
escutcheon marked with the letter F, under the fess- 
point. PI. i. 

NOVA SCOTIA, badge of. See BADGE. 

NOWED signifies tied or knotted, and is said of a 
serpent, wyvern, or other creature, whose body or tail 
is twisted like a knot. See PI. xxxv., n. 17. 

OAK. This tree is variously borne, as an emblem 
of strength, constancy, and long life : or, on a mount in 
base, an oak acorned proper ; name, Wood. PI. xvin., 
n. 12. 

OBSIDIONAL CROWN, or garland ; it was composed of 

CGR-ORL] of Technical Terms. 167 

grass, or twigs of trees, interwoven as the example ; 
it was by the Eomans given as a reward to him who 
held out a siege, or caused it to be raised, repulsing the 
enemy, and delivering the place. PI. XLV., n. 26. 


OLIVE CROWN, or Garland. It was given by the 
Greeks to those who came off victorious at the Olympic 
games. PI. xxix., n. 4. 

OLIVE TREE is the emblem of peace and concord ; 
or, a fess gules, between three olive-branches, proper ; 
name, Roundel. 

OMBRE, a French term for shadowed. 

ONDEE or UNDEE, the French term for wavy. 

ONGLE (Lat. ungulatus), a term used by French 
heralds in blazoning the talons or claws of birds or 
beasts, which they describe as ongle of such a colour. 

OPINICUS : a fictitious beast of heraldic invention ; 
its body and fore legs like those of a lion ; the head 
and neck like those of the eagle ; to the body are 
affixed wings, like those of a griifin ; and it has a tail 
like that of a camel. PI. xxxn., n. 6. The opinicus is 
the crest to the arms of the Barber-surgeons. It is 
sometimes borne without wings. 

OR signifies gold, and, in engraving, is represented 
by small dots all over the field or charge. PI. n. 


ORDINARIES are any of those figures which, by their 
ordinary and frequent use, are become peculiar to the 
science : such as the cross, chief, pale, fess, inescutcheon, 
chevron, saltire, bend, and bar. PI. iv. 

ORIFLAM, or ORIFLAMME, a name given to a standard 
or banner borne by the kings of France, in honour of 
St. Denis. The Oriflamme borne at Agincourt was an 

168 Dictionary [ORL-OST. 

oblong red flag with five points or tails. The French 
infantry in later times had a banner so named, which 
was charged with a saltire, wavy with rays or flames 
issuing from the centre crossways. 

OKLE signifies a border or selvage within the shield, 
at some distance from the edges. PI. v., n. 4. Azure, 
an orle argent ; name, Sir John Spring. In-orle signifies 
things placed regularly within the escutcheon, in the 
nature of an orle, near the edges. PI. xxxv. n. 4. 
Martlets, trefoils, &c., when in- orle, are always eight in 
number. The phrase in-orle is also frequently used 
to describe any two bearings so depicted as to meet, 
or nearly meet, in the form of an arch ; as, " two 
branches of laurel in in-orle" 

ORLE, of three pieces, sable : this example is taken 
from Upton, to show that this ordinary is borne of 
many pieces. PI. xxxix., n. 17. 

ORLE and BORDURE, sable, an orle within a bordure 
argent. PI. xxxix., n. 18. 

OSTRICH, the largest of all birds, is frequently borne 
in coat armour. From the idle story of its being able 
to digest iron, this bird is, in heraldry, usually painted 
with a horse-shoe in its mouth. PL xxxi., n. 24. 

OSTRICH FEATHERS are always drawn with their tops 
turned down, as PI. xxxn., n. 8. If in coat-armoury 
an ostrich-feather is white, and the quill part gold, or 
any other colour different from the feather, it is 
blazoned, penned, shafted, or quilled, of such a colour. 

OSTRICH FEATHERS IN PLUME : if three feathers are 
placed together, as in PL xxxn., n. 8, they are termed 
a plume, and their number need not be mentioned in 
the blazoning ; but if there are more than three, the 
number should be expressed; for example, a plume of 

OTT-PAL.] of Technical Terms. 169 

Jive ostrich feathers. If there is more than one row of 
feathers, those rows are termed in blazon heights ; for 
example, a plume of ostrich feathers in two heights, by 
some termed a double plume, at PL xxxn., n. 9. Where 
the plume is composed of nine feathers, in two heights, 
they should be placed five in the bottom row, and four 
in the top row ; if there are three heights, then the 
plume should consist of twelve feathers : viz., five, four, 
and three. They are termed a triple plume. See Plate 
xxxii., n. 10. 

OTTER, the amphibious animal so called. PI. xxvi., 
n. 10. Argent, a fess between three otters sable; name, 
Lutterel. Loutre, being French for otter. 


OVER- ALL is when one charge is borne over another. 
See Plate xrv., n. 13. Three bars wavy azure, over-all 
a lion rampant of the first ; name, Bulbeck. 

OWL. This bird, in heraldry, is always represented 
full-faced. PI. xxxi., n. 16. 

PADLOCK : sable, three padlocks argent ; name, Lovett. 
PL xxiv., n. 1. 

PALE is an honourable ordinary, consisting of two 
perpendicular lines drawn from the top to the base of 
the escutcheon, and contains one-third of the middle 
part of the field. PL iv., n. 2. The pale is like the 
palisades used about fortifications, and formerly used 
for the enclosing of camps ; every soldier was obliged 
to carry one, and to fix it according as the lines were 
drawn for the security of the camp. 

IN PALE is when things are borne one above another, 
perpendicularly, in the nature of a pale. See PL x., n. 

PER PALE, so termed when the field or charge is 

170 Dictionary [PAL-PAN. 

equally divided by a perpendicular line, as PI. m.,n. 1. 
Party per pale, or and sable ; name, Searle. 


PALL, an archiepiscopal ornament sent from Eome to 
metropolitans, and appropriated to archbishops : it is 
made of the wool of white lambs, and resembles the 
letter Y in shape. It consists of pieces of white 
woollen stuff, three fingers in breadth, and embroidered 
with crosses. See PI. xxxvi., n. 10. 

PALLET is a diminutive of the pale, containing one 
half of the breadth of the pale. See PI. iv., n. 3. 


PALLISSE is like a range of palisades before a forti- 
fication, and is so represented on a fess, rising up a 
considerable length, and pointed at the top with the 
field appearing between them. PI. xxxix., n. 16. 

PALMERS' STAFF. See Plate xxxv., n. 3. 

PALM-TREE. See PL xxxix., n. 2. The Egyptians 
represented the year by a palm-tree, and the month 
by one of its branches; because it is the nature of this 
tree to produce a branch every month. 

PALY is when the field is divided into four or more 
even number of parts, by perpendicular lines, consisting 
of two different tinctures, interchangeably disposed. 
Paly of six, or and azure ; name, Gurney. PI. v., n. 17. 

PALY-BENDY is by lines perpendicular, which is paly, 
and by others diagonal athwart the shield, from the 
dexter to the sinister, which is called bendy. PL 
XXXVIIL, n. 22. Paly bendy sinister of six, or and azure, 
a canton, ermine ; name, Buck, of Yorkshire. See Plate 
XXXVIIL, n. 21. 

PANTHER in heraldry, when depicted with fire issuing 
from his mouth and ears, is termed incensed. The 

PAP-PAH.] of Technical Terms. 171 

panther is always represented full-faced or gardant. 
PL xxxi. n. 7. 


PAPILLONE is a field divided into variegated specks, 
like those on a butterfly, but ranged like the scales of 
a fish. PI. xxxvin., n. 25. 

PARROT. PL xxvm., n. 7. Parrots are frequent 
in the arms of the ancient families of Switzerland; 
occasioned by two great factions in the year 1262, 
which were distinguished by their ensigns ; the one 
having a red standard with a white star, and the other 
a white standard with a green parrot ; and the families 
that were concerned in those factions bore in their 
arms either stars or parrots. 

PARTITION LINES are such as party-per-pale, party- 
per-bend. party-per-fess, party-per-chevron, party-per- 
cross, party-per-saltire ; by which is understood a 
shield divided or cut through by a line or lines, either 
perpendicular, diagonal transverse, &c., as in example, 
PL in. Why lines are used in heraldry, is to difference 
bearings which would be otherwise the same ; for an 
escutcheon charged with a chief engrailed differs from 
a chief wavy as much as if the one bore a cross and 
the other a saltire. 

PARTY signifies parted or divided, and is applied to 
all divisions of the field, viz. : 

PARTY-PER-PALE is the field divided by a perpendicu- 
lar line. PL in, n. 1. Party-per-pale, argent and gules ; 
name, Walgrave. 

PAHTY-PER-PALE and CHEVRON signifies the field to 
be divided into four parts, by two lines ; one is a pale 
line, the other a line in form of a chevron. PL 
xxxvin., n. 31. 

172 Dictionary [PAR-PAT. 

PARTY-PER-PALE and BASE is the field divided into 
three parts by the pale line, and a horizontal one in 
base. PL xxxvm., n. 32. 


PASSANT-GARDANT, for a beast walking full-faced, 
looking right forward. PI. ix., n. 1. Carter says, Gules, 
a lion passant-gardant, or, was the coat-armour of the 
dukes of Aquitaine, and was joined with the coat of 
the kings of England by the marriage of Henry II. with 
Eleanor of Aquitaine, being before two lions, the pos- 
ture and colours one and the same. The supposition 
has probability in its favour; but it is unsupported 
by any known authority. 

PASSANT-KEGARDANT signifies a beast walking and 
looking behind him. PL ix., n. 12. 

PASSION, or CROSS of the Passion, is like that of 
Calvary, but has no steps. 

PASSION-NAIL. See Plate xxxvi., n. 31. 

PATERNAL signifies, in heraldry, the original arms of 
a family. 

PATERNOSTER, A CROSS ; one which is made of beads. 
PL xxxvi., n. 7. 

PATONOE, A CROSS, is flory at the ends, and differs 
from that which is so called, inasmuch as the cross 
flory is circumflex and turns down ; whereas this ex- 
tends to a pattee form. PL vi., n. 4. Vert, a cross patonce, 
or ; name, Boydell. 

PATRIARCHAL CROSS, so called from its being appro- 
priated to patriarchs, as the triple cross is to the Pope, 
PL xxxvi., n. 20. Morgan says the patriarchal cross 
is crossed twice, to denote that the work of redemption 
which was wrought on the cross extended to both Jews 
and Gentiles. 

PAT-PEL.] of Technical Terms. 173 

PATTEE, A CROSS, is small in the centre, and so goes 
on widening to the ends, which are very broad. PI. vi., 
n. 6, 

PATTEE, a cross pattee throughout, i.e., extending to 
the edges of the field. See Plate xxxix., n. 9. Some 
authors term it cross pattee entire. 

PATTES are the paws of any beast. 



PEACOCK, when borne affronte, with its tail spread, 
is termed in pride, as PL xxxv., n. 11 ; when repre- 
sented with its wings close, as the example, PL xxiv., 
n. 15, it is blazoned simply a peacock, and it must be 
drawn as the example. 

PEA-KISE, a term for a pea-stalk, leaved and blos- 
somed ; it is part of the crest of St.'Quintin. 

PEAN, one of the furs, the ground black, and the 
spots gold. PL XL. 

PEARL, in heraldry, is used for argent, and in en- 
graving is left white. 

PEGASUS, among the poets, a horse imagined to have 
wings, being that whereon Bellerophon was fabled to 
be mounted when he engaged the Chimera ; azure, a 
Pegasus, the wings expanded argent, are the arms of the 
Inner Temple, London. PI. xxxiv., n. 20. 

PELICAN HERALDIC. The pelican is generally re- 
presented with her wings indorsed, her neck embowed, 
pecking her breast ; and when in her nest feeding her 
young, is termed a pelican in her piety. PL vn., n. 19. 

PELICAN NATURAL. In size it exceeds the swan. 
This bird has an enormous bag attached to the lower 
mandible of the bill, and extending almost from the 
point of the bill to the throat. See Plate xxix., n. 13. 

174 Dictionary [PEL-PHE. 

PELLETS are black roundles ; some term them 
ogresses, and gun-stones. PL vni., n. 13. 

PEN. PL xxx., n. 17. Gules, three pens argent; 
name, Cowpen. 

PENDENT signifies hanging down. 

PENNON, a small flag, ending in one sharp point, or 
two, which used to be placed on the tops of spears, 
with the crest, or motto, of the bearer. Pennons are 
never to be charged with the arms. 

PENNY-YARD-PENNY, so termed from the place where 
it was first coined, which was in the castle of Penny- 
yard, near the market-town of Boss, situated upon the 
river Wye, in the county of Hereford. PL xxvn., n. 
16. Azure, three penny-yard-pence proper ; name, Spence. 

PENNONCELLE, or PENSELL, the diminutive of the 

PER, a particle generally used in heraldry before 
an ordinary, to denote a partition of the field, as party 
per fess, pale, &c. 

PERCLOSE, or demi-garter, is that part of the garter 
that is buckled and no wed. See example, PL xxxix., 
n. 23. Or, the per close of three demi-garter s noived 
azure, garnished of the first ; name, Narboon. 




PETRONEL, an ancient name for a pistol. 

PEWIT : see the example, PL xxv., n. 23. 

PHEON, the iron part of a dart, with a barbed head, 
frequently borne in coats ; its position is always with 
the point downwards, unless otherwise blazoned. PL 
vii., n. 4. 

PHEON, ACROSS, composed of four Pheons., n. 12. 

PHCE-PIL.] of Technical Terms, 175 

PHCENIX, an imaginary bird, famous among the 
ancients, who describe it in form like the eagle, but 
more beautiful in its plumage; and add that when 
advanced in age, it makes itself a nest of spices, which 
being set on fire by the sun, or some other secret 
power, it burns itself, and out of its ashes rises another. 
In heraldry, a phoenix in flames proper is the emblem of 
Immortality. " PI. VIL, n. 20. 

PIERCED, A CROSS, or any other ordinary perforated 
or struck through, with a hole in it, so that the field 
may be seen ; the piercing must be particularly ex- 
pressed as to its shape, whether square, round, or 
lozenge; viz., argent, a cross, square-pierced, azure. 
PI. xxxvi., n. 1. 

PIKE-STAFF. See the example, PL xxxvin., n. 3. 

PILLAR. Or, a pillar sable, enwrapped with an adder 
argent ; name, Myntur. PI. xxvn., n. 3. 

PILE, an ordinary. PI. iv., n. 22. Edmondson is of 
opinion that, when there are two. three, or more piles, 
issuing from a chief, and they are not expressed in 
the blazon to meet in a point, they should be drawn 
perpendicular. Argent a pile gules ; borne by the cele- 
brated Sir John Chandos in the time of Edward the 

PILE, PARTY-PER, transposed. This kind of bearing 
is rare ; for the natural bearing of piles is with the 
points downward : another peculiarity is, that the field 
is divided into three distinct colours. This coat is 
borne by Meinstorpe of Holsatia. PI. xxxvin., n. 33. 

PILE, PARTY-PER, in point, argent, and azure. PI. 
xxxvin., n.-^.^y. 

PILE, PARTY-PER, in traverse, argent, and gules; so 
termed, from the lines having their beginning from 

176 Dictionary [PIL POI. 

the exact points of the chief and base sinister, and so 
extending to the extreme line in the fess point on the 
dexter side : this coat is borne by Rathloive of Holsatia. 
PL xxxviii., n. 35. 

PILGKIMS' or PALMERS' STAFFS. See Plate xxxv., 
n. 3 and 10. Azure, three pilgrims' crook-staffs or; 
name, Pilgrim. 

PILY-BENDT : or and azure, a canton ermine. PI. 
xxxv., n. 1. 

PINCERS, PI. xxvm, n. 16, argent, a fess between three 
pair of pincers gules ; name, Russel. 

PINE-TREE. Argent, on a mount in base, a pine-tree 
fructed proper ; name, Pine. 

PLACCATE, a piece of armour worn over the breast- 
plate, to strengthen it. 

PLATE is a round flat piece of silver, without any 
impression on it. T. 8, n. 10. 

PLAYING-TABLE, or backgammon tables, PI. xxv., 
n. 8. Azure, three pair of backgammon tables open proper, 
edged or ; name, Pegriz. 

PLOUGH. Azure, a plough in fess argent; name, 
Kroge. PI. xxvn., n. 12. 



PLUMMET, used by mariners to fathom the depth of 
water. PI. xxxrv., n. 11. 


POINTS, A CROSS, of sixteen: so termed from its 
having four points at each extremity. PI. xxxvii., n. 4. 

IN POINT, is when swords, piles, &c., are so borne 
as to resemble the point of a pile ; that is, that the 
points of such bearings almost meet in the base of the 

POI-POR.] of Technical Terms. 177 



POMEGRANATE i the arms of the city of Granada in 
Spain, are argent, a pomegranate in pale, slipt proper ; 
allusive to the name. PI. xxvu., n. 6. It was also the 
badge of Queen Katherine of Arragon, and is occa- 
sionally met with in English heraldry. 

POMEIS, are green Bundles, so termed from the 
French word pomme, an apple. PI. viu., n. 14. 

POMELLED, signifies the round ball or knob affixed to 
the handle of a sword or dagger. 

POMME, A CROSS, signifies a cross with a ball or knob 
at each end ; from pomme, an apple. PI. vi., n. 9. 

POMMETTT, A CROSS, is one the extremities of which 
terminate in several, or more than one, ball or knob, 
like those of a pilgrim's staff. PI. xxxvu., n. 19. 


POPINJAY, a small parrot, or paroquet, with red 
beak and legs. 

PORCUPINE. PI. xxvi., n. 5. Gules, a porcupine 
saliant argent, quilled &nd chained or ; name, Sir Simon 
Eyre, Lord Mayor of London, 1445. He built Leadenhall. 

PORTATE, A CROSS, so termed because it does not 
stand upright, as generally crosses do, but lies athwart 
the escutcheon in bend, as if it were carried (Lat. 
portatus) on a man's shoulder. PI. xxxvu., n. 16. 

PORTCULLIS, a falling cross-barred door, like a harrow, 
hung over the gates of fortified places, and let down to 
keep an enemy out, the perpendicular bars being spiked, 
both to wound the assailants and fix themselves in the 
ground. The portcullis is one of the distinctions of 
the royal house of Tudor, in allusion to their descent 
from the Beauforts. PI. vn., n. 12. 

178 Dictionary [POR-PEE. 

PORTUGAL, CROWN OF, is a ducal coronet, heightened 
up with eight arched diadems that support a mound, 
ensigned with a plain cross. PL XLV., n. 9. 


POTENT, A CROSS, so termed by reason of the resem- 
blance its extremities bear to the head of a crutch, 
which, in Chaucer's description of old age, is called a 
potent : 

" So eld she was, that she ne went 
A foote, but it were by potent." 

PL vi., n. 5. Azure, a cross potent or ; name, Branchley. 

POTENT-COUNTER-POTENT, argent and azure ; fur so 
termed, because it is said to resemble the heads of 
crutches : in blazon the colours being named, they 
may be tinctured with any other, as argent, sable, &c. 
PL ii., n. 6. 

POULDRON, that part of a suit of armour which 
covers the shoulder. 

POWDERING signifies the strewing of a field, crest, or 
supporters, irregularly with any small figures, as 
escallops, martlets, fleurs-de-lis, &c. See also SEM! 

PRASIN, an ancient term for green ; from the Greek, 
signifying a leek. 



PREDOMINANT signifies that the field is but of one 

PREENE, an instrument used by clothiers in dressing 
cloth. PL xxx., n. 5. Azure, a preene or; name, 

PREMIER, from the French, signifies first ; and is 
used by English heralds to signify the most ancient 
peer of any degree by creation. 

PEE-QUA.] of Technical Terms. 179 

PRESTER JOHN, or Presbyter John, is drawn as a 
bishop, sitting on a tombstone, having on his head a 
mitre, his dexter hand extended, a mound in his 
sinister, and in his mouth a sword fesswise ; the point 
to the dexter side of the field. This is part of the arms 
of the episcopal see of Chichester. PI. xxxix., n. 11. 


PRIDE : this term is used for turkeycocks and pea- 
cocks. When they extend their tails into a circle, 
and drop their wings, they are said to be in their 
pride. PI. xxxv., n. 11. 

PRIMROSE, an ancient term for the quatrefoil. 


PROBOSCIS is the trunk of an elephant. PI. xxvui., 
n. 20. 

PROPER : this term is applied to all creatures, vege- 
tables, &c., when borne in coats of arms in their 
natural colours. 


PURFLED, trimmed or garnished, a term for the studs 
and rims of armour being gold : viz., an arm in armour 
proper, purfled or. 

PURPURE is the colour purple, and, in engraving, is 
represented by diagonal lines, from the left to the 
right. PI. n. 

PYOT. A provincial name for a magpie. 

QUADRANS, Lat. a Canton. 

QUADRATE signifies square ; a cross potent quadrate 
in the centre, that is, the centre of the cross is square. 
See PI. xxxvi., n. 29. 

QUARTER, an ordinary of a quadrangular form, con- 
taining a fourth part of the field ; it is formed by two 
lines, one drawn from the side of the shield horizontally 

180 Dictionary [QUA-QUI. 

to the centre, and the other perpendicularly from the 
chief, to meet it in the same point. PL iv., n. 23. 

QUARTERINGS are the partitions of a shield, containing 
many coats of arms. See Plate xix., n. 19. 

QUARTERLY is when a shield or charge is divided 
into four parts, by a perpendicular and horizontal line, 
which, crossing each other in the centre of the field, 
divide it into four equal parts, called quarters. PI. 
xiii., n. 6. PI. xix., n. 19. 

QUARTERLY PIERCED signifies a square hole in a cross, 
a millrine, &c., through which aperture the field is 
seen. See examples, PI. xxxvi., n. 1. 

QUARTERLY QUARTERED is a saltire quartered in the 
centre, and the branches each parted by two different 
tinctures alternately. See Plate xix., n. 16. 

QUATREFOIL, four-leaved grass : this, as well as the 
trefoil, is much used in heraldry. PI. vi., n. 22. 

QUEUE, a term for the tail of an animal. 

QUILL OP YARN. See the example, PI. xxv., n. 22. 

QUINTAIN, QUINTAL, or QUINTIN, a kind of tilting- 
post used in a gymnastic pastime of our ancestors. 
There is one at Offham, in Kent ; it stands upon a 
green in the midst of the village, and is about seven 
feet in length ; the transverse piece is about five feet 
in length, the broad part of which is marked with 
many circles about the size of a half-crown ; and at 
the other end is a block of wood, weighing about four 
or five pounds, suspended by a chain ; the whole of 
which turns round upon a pivot upon the upright 
part ; and the game was played as follows : a man on 
horseback being armed with a strong pole, of a certain 
length, rides with full speed within a few feet of the 
quintal, and making a strong thrust at that part of it 

QUI-KAV.] of Technical Terms. 181 

where the circles are marked, it is turned round with 
such violence, that, unless he is very expert, he is sure 
to receive a blow on the head from the pendulous 
piece on the opposite side. PL XXXIIL, n. 6. 

QUIVER OF ARROWS, a case filled with arrows. 


EADIANT, or EAYONNANT, is when rays or beams are 
represented about a charge ; as PI. vi., n. 16. 

EAGTJLED is when the bearing is uneven or ragged, 
like the trunk or limb of a tree lopt of its branches, so 
that only the stumps are seen. One of the lines of 
partition, from its shape, is termed raguled. PL in., 
and PL xxxvi., n. 2. 

EAGULT, A CROSS, is one which seems to be made of 
two trunks of trees without branches. PL xxxvi., n. 2. 
Sable, a cross raguly, or ; name, Stoway. 

EAINBOW is a semicircle of various colours, arising 
from clouds. PL xvin., n. 6. Argent, a rainbow proper ; 
name, Pont. 

EAM : the male sheep. Sable, a chevron, between three 
rams' heads couped, argent ; name, Ramsey. 

EAMPANT, a term applied to describe a beast standing 
upright on his hinder legs. PL ix., n. 2. 

EAMPANT-GARDANT, signifies a lion standing upright 
on his hinder legs, full-faced, looking right forward. 
PL ix., n. 2. 

EAMPANT-EEGARDANT ; a term for any beast standing 
upright on its hinder legs, looking behind or towards 
its back. PL ix., n. 4. 

EAPING, an old term for ravenous beasts when repre- 
sented feeding. 

EAVEN, a bird found in almost all countries in the 
world, or, a raven proper ; name, Corbet. PL xxvi., n. 18. 

182 Dictionary [RAV-REB. 

EAVISSANT, a French term, used to describe the 
position of a wolf, or other wild beast, half raised, on 
the point of springing on his prey. It is also applied 
occasionally to all ravenous animals, when feeding on 
or devouring their prey. 

EAT, a stream of light from any luminous body, as 
the sun or stars. PI. xn., n. 30. When rays are 
depicted round the sun, they should be sixteen in 
number ; when round an estoile, six only : in either 
case, straight and waved alternately. 

RAYONNANT, A CROSS, is that which has rays of glory 
behind it, darting from the centre to all the quarters of 
the escutcheon. PI. vi., n. 16. 

REBATED is when the top or point of a weapon is 
broken off. 

REBUS, in heraldry, is generally a device, allusive to 
the name of the bearer : frequently, however, the 
painted representation is accompanied with words, or 
an imperfect motto : the accompanying words explain- 
ing the thing represented, and the representation 
aiding to make sense of the imperfect motto ; as the 
motto, " We must," on a sun-dial : the meaning of 
which is made up by the thing itself; that is, "We 
must die all" Puerilities of this kind were anciently 
so much in fashion, that many instances of their use, 
especially during the sixteenth century, may be found 
even in churches. Examples : Islip, abbot of West- 
minster, sculptured in the abbey, a representation of a 
man slipping from a tree. Bolton, prior of St. 
Bartholomew, Smithfield, sculptured in the church, a 
bolt or arrow pierced through a tun. Hose Knotiving, 
in a painting on glass in an old house, Islington, the 

REC-REN.] of Technical Terms. 183 

representation of a rose, a knot, or twisted cord, and 
a wing. Peacham, in his " Compleat Gentleman," 
says, " Certain citizens, wanting arms, have coined 
themselves devices alluding to their names, which we 
call rebus : thus, Master Jugge, the printer, in many of 
his books, took, to express his name, a nightingale 
sitting in a bush with a scroll in her mouth, on which 
was inscribed, Jugge, Jugge, Jugge." 

RECLINANT, bowed or bending backward. 


RECROSSED, A CROSS, is the same as a crosslet. 


REFLECTED, or REFLEXED, curved or turned round, 
as the chain or line from the collar of a dog, &c., 
thrown over the back. 

REGALIA, the ensigns of royalty. 

REGARDANT, signifies an animal looking behind, 
having its face turned towards its back: as seeing, 
marking, vigilant. PI. ix., n. 12. 

REIN-GUARD, for that part of armour which guards 
the lower part of the back. 

REIN-DEER, as drawn in armoury, is a stag with 
double attires ; as the example, PI. xxxii., n. 5. 

REMORA. This word, in heraldry is used to denote 
a serpent, in blazoning the figure of Prudence, which 
is represented holding in her hand a javelin entwined 
with a serpent proper ; such serpent is expressed by 
the word Remora. 

RENVERSE, is when anything is set with the head 
downwards, or contrary to its natural way of being : as 
a chevron with the point downwards, or when a beast 
is laid on its back. PI. xxvi., n. 3. 

184 Dictionary [RER-ROS. 

HERE-MOUSE, or BAT. Argent, a rere-mouse displayed 
sable ; name, Baxter. PI. xxxi., n. 18. 

RESPECTING, a term for fish, or tame beasts, when 
placed upright one against the other. PI. x., n. 5. For 
beasts of prey the term COMBATANT is used. 

REST: this figure is deemed by some a rest for a 
horseman's lance ; by others, an organ-rest, and a 
musical instrument, termed a clarion or claricord. It 
is, in many ancient examples, drawn precisely like the 
mouth-organ, or Pan's pipe. It is clear it could not 
have been a lance-rest, as it appears centuries before 
the introduction of that article. PI. vn., n. 11. 

RESTEIALL, an ancient term for barry, paly and pily. 

RHINOCEROS. PI. xxxi., n. 21. 

RIBBON, or RIBAND, an ordinary containing the eighth 
part of the bend, of which it is a diminutive. PI. iv., n. 9. 

RISING, a term applied to birds when preparing to 
fly. PI. ix., n. 20. 

ROMPU, A CHEVRON, signifying a chevron, bend, or 
the like, broken. PI. xxxvin., n. 18. Sable, a chevron 
rompu, between three mullets or ; name, Sault. See Plate 
xni., n. 27. 

ROSE, in blazon, the following (according to Guillim) 
should be observed, viz., argent, a rose gules, barbed and 
seeded proper. The rose is blazoned gules ; the leaves 
are called barbed, and are always green, as the seed in 
the middle is yellow; the word proper should be 
omitted in blazoning this flower ; for it could not be 
understood of what colour, as there are two sorts, white 
and red. PI. vi., n. 24. The rose is used as a distinc- 
tion for the seventh brother. See Distinction of 
Houses. PI. XLII., n. 7. 

ROS-SAB.] of Technical Terms. 185 

The roses of England were first publicly assumed as 
devices by the sons of Edward III. John of Gaunt, 
Duke of Lancaster, used the red rose for the badge of 
his family ; and his brother Edward, who was created 
Duke of York, anno 1385, took a white rose for his 
device, which the followers of them and their heirs 
afterwards bore for distinction in that bloody war 
between the two houses of York and Lancaster. The 
two families being happily united by Henry VII., the 
male heir of the house of Lancaster, marrying Princess 
Elizabeth, the eldest daughter and heiress of Edward 
IV. of the house of York, anno 1486, the two roses 
were united in one, and became the royal badge of 

EOSELETTES, Leigh says, signify single roses, having 
five leaves each. 

ROSE-DOUBLE. See PI. xxxvu., n. 21. 

ROUNDELS, or ROUNDLETS. See PI. vin., n. 9 to 15. 

ROUSANT, a term for a bird preparing to take wing, 
but whose weight of body prevents it from rising 
suddenly into the air, as swans, &c. When this term 
is applied to a swan, we are to understand that her 
wings are indorsed ; as the example, PI. x., n. 10. 

RUBY, a stone used in heraldry instead of gules, 
being of a red colour. 


RUSTRE, is a lozenge pierced of a circular form in 
the middle. See PI. xxxvu., n. 22. Boyer says, 
rustre is from the German raute, which signifies the nut 
of a screw. 

SABLE is the colour black, and in engraving is repre- 
sented by perpendicular and horizontal lines crossing 
each other. PI. n. 

186 Dictionary [SAC-SAL. 

SACRE or SAKER, a kind of falcon; the head gray, 
the feet and legs bluish, the back a dark brown. 

SAGITTARIUS, an imaginary creature, half man and 
half beast ; it represents one of the twelve signs of the 
zodiac, and is said to have been borne by King Stephen 
of England, who entered the kingdom when the sun was 
in that sign, and obtained a great victory by the help 
of his archers ; but we have no contemporary authority 
for this statement, nor pictorial example of it. PI. 
xxxi., n. 1. 

SAIL, PI. xxx., n. 16. Gules, three sails argent; 
name, Cavell. It is sometimes represented with a por- 
tion of the mast before it. 

SALAMANDER, a fictitious reptile, represented like a 
small common lizard in the midst of flames. PI. xxvni., 
n. 3. Azure, a salamander or, in flames proper ; name, 

SALIANT signifies leaping. PL ix., n. 6. Argent, a 
lion saliant gules ; name, Petit. 

COTTNTER-SALIANT is when two beasts on the same 
escutcheon are saliant ; the one leaping one way, and 
the other another, so that they look the direct opposite 
ways ; as the example, PI. ix., n. 9, which should be 
blazoned, two foxes, counter-saliant in saltier, the sinister 
surmounted by the dexter. 

SALLED or SALLET, from the Italian Celato, a steel 
head-piece of the fifteenth century. 

SALT, or SALT-CELLARS, are vessels with salt falling 
from the sides, as borne in the arms of the Salters' 
Company ; as PL xxxn., n. 26. Some heralds have 
blazoned them sprinkling salts. They were anciently 
drawn as the example. At coronation dinners, and all 
great feasts given by the nobility and gentry, in 

SAL-SAT.] of Technical Terms. 187 

ancient times, it was usual to set one of these salts in 
the centre of the dining-table ; not only for holding 
salt for the use of the guests, but as a mark to separate 
and distinguish the seats of the superior sort of 
company from those of an inferior degree; it being 
the custom of former times to set the nobility and 
gentry above the salt, and the yeomanry and persons 
of lower rank below the salt. 

SALTIRE. This cross is an ordinary which is formed 
by the bend dexter and bend sinister crossing each 
other in the centre at acute angles; uncharged, it 
contains the fifth, and charged, the third part of the 
field. PI. iv., n. 21. 

PER SALTIRE is when the field is divided into four 
parts by two diagonal lines, dexter and sinister, that 
cross each other in the centre of the field, dividing it 
into four equal parts, in form of a saltire. PL in., n. 6. 
Party per saltire ermine and gules ; name, Restwold. 

SANGUINE is the murrey colour, or dark red, and is 
represented in engraving by lines diagonally from the 
dexter to the sinister side, and from the sinister to the 
dexter. PL XLI., n. 2. 

SANS-NOMBRE signifies many whole figures strewed 
on the field ; but if part of them are cut off at the 
extremities of the escutcheon, as the example, PI. xxxv., 
n. 31, it then is termed Seme. 

SAPPHIRE, in heraldry, is used to express the colour 
azure, it being a stone of a fine sky-blue colour, and 
the hardest next a diamond. 

SARDONYX ; this stone is used in heraldry instead of 
sanguine, or dark-red colour. 

SATURN, one of the planets, and is used instead of 
the colour sable. 

188 Dictionary [SAT-SCR. 

SATTEAL, a fictitious animal, having the body of a 
lion, the tail and horns of an antelope, and the face of 
an old man. PI. xvui., n. 9. 


SCALING-LADDER. This instrument is used to scale 
the walls of besieged castles and cities. PL xin., n. 
18. Argent, three scaling-ladders bendwise gules ; name, 

SCARPE. A diminutive of the bend sinister. PI. rv., 
n. 11. 

SCEPTRE, a royal staff used by kings ; azure, a sceptre 
in pale or, ensigned with an eye. PI. xxvii., n. 9. 

SCORPION, PI. xxviii., n. 19. Argent, a fess engrailed 
between three scorpions erect sable ; name, Cole. 

SCOTCH SPUR, PI. xxx., n. 19. This is the ancient 
way of making spurs before rowels were invented, with 
the buckles fixed to the heel-piece, as the example. 
It is the Anglo-Norman pryck-spur. 

SCRIP, argent, a chevron between three palmers' scrips, the 
tassels and buckles or ; name, Palmer. PI. xxvii., n. 7. 
In the chancel at Snodland, in Kent, where Thomas 
Palmer, who married the daughter of Fitz- Simon, lies 
buried, is the following epitaph : 

" Palmers all our faders were, 
I a Palmer lived here ; 
And travell'd still, till worn wild age 
I ended this world's pilgrimage. 
On the blest Ascension day, 
In the cheerful month of May, 
A thousand with four hundred seaven, 
T took my journey hence to heaven." 

Palmer (so called from a staff of a palm-tree, which 
they carried as they returned from the holy war), a 

SOU-SEA.] of Technical Terms. 189 

Pilgrim that visited holy places ; yet a Pilgrim and a 
Palmer differed thus : a Pilgrim had some dwelling- 
place, and a Palmer had none ; the Pilgrim travelled to 
some certain place, the Palmer to all, and not to any 
one in particular; the Pilgrim must go at his own 
charge, the Palmer must profess wilful poverty; the 
Pilgrim might give over his profession, but the Palmer 
might not. Bailey. The dress of a Pilgrim was an 
under vest, with an outer robe, having half-open 
sleeves, showing the under-sleeves, which continued to 
the wrists. On his head a broad-brimmed hat, with a 
shell in front; on his feet sandals, or short laced 
boots ; in his hand a staff, and by his side a scrip. 

SCROGS, a term used by the Scotch heralds for a 
small branch of a tree. 

SCROLL, or label, wherein the motto is inserted. 



SCYTHE, an instrument used in husbandry. Argent, 
a scythe and in fess a fleur-de-lis sable ; name, Snyde, or 
Sneyde. PI. xxxv., n. 34. 

SEA-DOG is drawn in shape like the talbot, but wi^th 
a tail like that of the beaver ; a scalloped fin continued 
down the back from the head to the tail; the whole 
body, legs, and tail scaled, and the feet webbed. PI. 
xxxii., n. 7. 

SEA-GULL. PI. xxxin., n. 17. Azure, a chevron or, 
between three sea-gulls argent ; name, Houlditch. 

SEA-HORSE; the fore part is formed like a horse, 
with webbed feet, and the hinder part ends in a fish's 
tail. PI. xxxi., n. 3. 


SEAL'S PAW, erased, PI. xxxin., n. 9. Argent, a 

190 Dictionary [SEA-SER. 

chevron between three seals' paws, erased, sable. These 
are the arms of Yarmouth, in Norfolk. 

SEA-LION. The upper part is like a lion, and the 
lower part like the tail of a fish. See PI. xxxn., n. 20. 
When the sea-lion is drawn erect, as PI. xxxi., n. 29, it 
is blazoned, a sea-lion, erect on his tail. 

SEA-PIE, a water-fowl of a dark-brown colour, with a 
red head, and the neck and wings white. PI. XXXIL, 
n. 3. Gules, a chevron, between three sea-pies or ; name, 

SEA.X, a scimitar, with a semicircular notch hollowed 
out of the back of the blade. PI. xxxn., n. 2. It is 
said, most incorrectly, to be formed exactly like the 
Saxon sword. The Saxon sword was perfectly strait, 
as evidenced by the numbers found in tumuli, and by 
the drawings in Anglo-Saxon MSS. The heraldic 
Seax is drawn in the shape of a cutlass or falchion. 

SEEDED is chiefly appled to roses, to express the 
colour of their seed. 

SEGEEANT signifies a griffin erect on its hind-legs, 
with the wings indorsed, and displayed as ready to fly. 
PI. xxxv., n. 13. 

SEJANT, sitting ; a term applied to all beasts when 
borne in that position. PI. viu., n. 21. 

SEJANT-ADDOESED is when two beasts are sitting 
back to back. PL ix., n. 11. Argent, two squirrels sejant- 
addorsed gules ; name, Samwell. 

SEME is an irregular strewing without number, all 
over the field. PI. xxxv., n. 31. 

SENGEEEN, or house-leek, is part of the arms of Caius 
College, Cambridge. 

SENTIEE, an ancient term for Piles. 

SEEAPH'S HEAD is a child's head between three pair 

SHA-SIN.] of Technical Terms. 191 

of wings; the two uppermost and two lowermost are 
counterly crossed ; the two middlemost displayed. Se'e 
Plate xxxni., n. 1. 

SHACKBOLT, by some called a prisoner's bolt. PI. 
xxxiv., n. 24. Sable, three pair of sliack-bolts argent ; 
name, Anderton. See one pair, Plate xxxn., n. 27. 

SHAFTED is when a spear-head has a handle in it ; 
then it is termed shafted. 


SHAMROCK, a term in Ireland for the trefoil, or 
three-leaved grass. 



SHOVELLER, a species of water-fowl, somewhat like 
the duck. The ancient heralds drew this bird with a 
tuft on its breast, and another on the back of its head, 
as PI. xxxn., n. 1. Gules, a shoveller argent ; name, 


SHUTTLE ; argent, three weavers' shuttles sable, tipped, 
and furnished with quills of yarn; name, Shuttleworth. 
PL xxvn., n. 22. 

SILK-HANKS, PL xxx., n. 14. Such are borne in the 
arms of the Silk-Throwers' Company. 

SINISTER signifies the left "side or part of anything, 
and is the female side in an impaled coat. 

SINISTER CANTON is the canton placed on the left 
side of the shield in chief. 

SINISTER BEND is a bend placed from the sinister 
chief to the dexter base, and in size the same as the 

SINISTER CHIEF is the left side of the chief, ex- 
pressed by the letter C, Table I., page 10. 

192 Dictionary [SIN-SPA. 

SINISTER BASE, the left hand part of the base, re- 
presented by the letter H, Table I., page 10. 

SINISTER HAND, the left hand. PI. xxxv., n. 33. 

SINOPLE signifies the colour green. 

SKEIN, a Scotch term for a dagger. Gules, a chevron t 
between three skeins argent, hilted and pomelled or, sur- 
mounted of as many-wolves' heads, couped close; name, 

SLAY, SLEA, or KEED; an instrument used by 
weavers, and borne as part of the arms of the Com- 
pany of Weavers of the city of Exeter. PI. xxxiv., 
n. 18. 

SLING. See Plate xxxm., n. 19. Such a sling is 
part of the arms of Cawardyn; viz., sable, a sling 
bendwise between two paeons' heads. 


SLIPPED is a flower or branch plucked from the stock. 
PI. x., n. 11. 

SLUGHORN : this term is used by the Scotch heralds 
for what the French call le cri de guerre, and the 
English the war-cry. 

SNAIL, sometimes termed a house-snail. PI. xxvu., 
n. 13. Sable, a fess between three house-snails argent ; 
name, Shelly. 

SOL, the sun. In heraldry sometimes used to ex- 
press gold, in blazoning the arms of sovereigns. 

SOLDERING-IRON, a tool used by the plumbers, and 
borne in the arms of their Company. PI. xxxiv., n. 33. 

SPADE-IRON, or the shoeing of a spade. PI. xxxii., 
n. 25. Azure, three spade-irons or ; name, Becton. 

SPAIN, CROWN OF. See Plate XLV., n. 8. 

SPANCELLED, or fettered, is when a horse has his 
fore and hind legs, of the near side, fettered with 

SPE-STA.] of Technical Terms. 193 

fetter-locks fastened to the end of a stick. PI. xxxm., 
n. 21. This is the arms of Percivall. 

SPERVERS, a term for tents, as borne by the Up- 
holders' Company. 

SPHINX, a fabulous creature represented with a head, 
face, and breasts like a woman ; body and legs like a 
lion, and wings like a bird. A sphinx passant, wings 
indorsed, argent crined or, is the crest of Asgill, bart. 
PI. xxxi., n. 2. 

SPIDER and WEB. A cobweb, in the centre a spider ; 
name, Cobster, of Lombardy. See Plate xxxix., n. 10. 

SPLENDOUR ; a term for the sun, which, when repre- 
sented with a human face, and environed with rays, is 
blazoned in splendour. 


SPRINGING, for beasts of chase, is the same as saliant 
for those of prey. PL ix., n. 15. 

SPUR. Gilt spurs were the distinguishing mark of 
Knighthood ; when borne on shields they are generally 
represented with the rowel downwards. See SCOTCH SPUR. 

SQUARE, PI. xxx., n. 7. Argent, a chevron between 
three carpenters' squares, sable ; name, Attow. 

SQUIRREL. PI. xxvi., n. 24. Also Plate xxxix., n. 7. 


STAFFORD KNOT. See the example, Plate xxxn., n. 
31. Or, on a chevron gules, a Stafford knot argent, 
the arms of Stafford town. 

STAG, borne in heraldry in various positions: as, 
trippant, courant, lodged, at bay, at gaze, &c. : see those 
terms. PI. ix., n. 14. 


STATANT, signifies an animal standing, with all feet 
on the ground. PL vin., n. 23. 


194 Dictionary [STA-SWA. 

STAVES OF AN ESCARBUNCLE are the eight rays that 
issue from its centre. See PL vn., n. 18. 

STILTS. Seethe examples, Plate xxxv., n. 5. Argent, 
two stilts in saltire sable, garnished or ; the arms of Newby, 
of Yorkshire. 

STIRRUP. PI. XXVIIL, n. 22. Gules, three stirrups 
with buckles and straps or ; name, Scudamore. 

STORK. Argent, a stork sable membered gules ; name, 
Starkey, of Cheshire. PL XXXL, n. 19. 

STREAMING is the stream of light darting from a 
comet. See Plate xvin., n. 7. 

SUFFLUE, a term for a rest or clarion. 

SUN, in heraldry, is represented with a human face, 
environed with rays, and is termed a sun in its splendour. 
PL XXVIIL, n. 5. 

SUPER-CHARGE is one figure charged or borne upon 

SUPER-IMBATTLED ; azure, a fess, super-imbattled, 
between six estoiles or; name, Try on. See Plate XL 
n. 8. 

SUPPORTERS. See page 65. 


SURCOAT, a loose coat, formerly worn by military 
men over their armour, and upon which their arms 
were embroidered, in order that they might be distin- 
guished in time of battle. 

SURMOUNTED is when one charge is placed over another. 
See Plate XL, n. 34, viz., sable, a pile argent, surmounted 
of a chevron gules ; name, Dyxton. 

SURTOUT, a term for over-all ; it signifies a small 
escutcheon, containing a coat of augmentation. 

SWALLOW. Or, three swallows dose, proper ; name, 
Watton. See Plate xxix., n. 23. 

SWA-TAU.] of Technical Terms. 195 

SWAN. PI. xxxi., n. 15. Gules, a swan argent, mem- 
bered or ; name, Leyham. 

SWEPE ; used in ancient times to cast stones into 
towns and fortified places of an enemy. PI. xxxiv., 
n. 17. Argent, a swepe azure, charged with a stone or; 
name, Magnall, one of the names for a machine of this 
description being Mangonel. 

SWIVEL, two iron links which turn on a bolt. PI. 
xxxiv., n. 29. Three such are borne on a chevron, in 
the arms of the Ironmongers' Company. 



SYREN, or Mermaid. 

TABARD, a short loose garment for the body, with- 
out sleeves, worn by knights in the 15th century over 
their armour in order to distinguish them in battle ; 
whereon were embroidered their arms, &c. At pre- 
sent a tabard is worn only by heralds, on public occa- 


TALBOT, a sort of hunting-dog between a hound and 
a beagle, with a large snout, long, round, hanging, and 
thick ears. PI. xxxi., n. 26. Argent, a talbot passant, 
sable, gutte d'or ; name, Shirrington. 


TASCES, or TASSES, a part of armour to cover the 

TASSEL is a bunch of silk, or gold fringe, and is an 
addition to the strings of mantles and robes of state. 
PL xxviii., n. 18. Gules, three tassels or ; name, Wooler. 

TASSELLED ; that is, decorated with tassels. 

TAU, A CROSS, or St. Anthony's cross; so called 
because St. Anthony the monk is always painted with 

196 Dictionary [TEA-TIE. 

it upon his habit; likewise named from the Greek 
letter tau. PI. xxxvi., n. 26. 

TEAZEL, the head or seed-vessel of a species of 
thistle ; it is used by clothiers in dressing cloth, and 
borne in the arms of their Company. PI. xxxrv., n. 7. 

TENNB, or TAWNY, signifies orange-colour, and in 
engraving is represented by diagonal lines from the 
dexter to the sinister side of the shield, traversed by 
perpendicular lines. PI. XLL, n. 1. 

TENT, tabernacle, or pavilion. PI. xxxix., n. 21. 
Sable, a chevron between three tents, argent; name, Ten- 

TETE (French), signifies the head of an animaL 

THATCH-RAKE. PI. xxx., n. 4. 

THUNDERBOLT, in heraldry, is a twisted bar in pale 
inflamed at each end, surmounting two jagged darts, 
in saltire, between two wings displayed with streams of 
fire. PI. xxvii., n. 20. 

TIARA, a cap of golden cloth, from which hang two 
pendants, embroidered and fringed at the ends, seme of 
crosses of gold. This cap is enclosed by three coronets : 
on the top is a mount of gold, with a cross of the same. 
When Boniface VIII. was elected into the See of 
Rome, 1295, he first encompassed his cap with a 
coronet : Benedict II., in 1335, added a second to it ; 
and John XXII., in 1411, a third, with a view to indicate 
by them that the Pope is sovereign priest, the supreme 
judge, and the sole legislator amongst Christians. PL 
XLV., n. 4. 

TIERCE is a French term for a shield divided, or 
ingrafted into three areas. PI. xxxvu., n. 26 to 33. 
These partitions are not used by English heralds. 

TIERCE-IN-BENB. Ibid., n. 26. 

TIE-TOR.] of Technical Terms. 197 

TIERCE-IN-FESS. Ibid., n. 33. 

TIERCE-IN-GYRONS, bend sinisterwise. Hid., n. 29. 


TIERCE-IN-MANTLE. Ibid., n. 32. 

TIERCE-IN-PAIRLE. Ibid., n. 27. 

TIERCE-IN-PALE. Ibid., n. 28. 

TIERCE-IN-PILE, from sinister to dexter. Ibid., n. 30. 

TIGER HERALDIC, so termed to distinguish it from 
the natural tiger. See PI. vni., n. 3. 

TIGER NATURAL. See PI. xxix., n. 1. 

TILLAGE, BARE-HEAD. PI. xxx., n. 3. 

TiLTiNG-SpEAR, a spear used at tilts and tournaments. 
PI. xxix. n. 8. 

TIMBRE, signifies the helmet, when placed over the 
arms in a complete achievement, but, properly, is only 
the French name for crest. 

TINCTURE is the colour of anything in coat-armour : 
under this denomination may be included the two 
metals or and argent, gold and silver, because they are 
often represented by yellow and white, and are them- 
selves of those colours. 

TIRRET, a modern term for manacles or handcuffs, 
as in the badges of the house of Percy. PI. x., n. 12. 
See also another form, PI. xxix., n. 3. 

TOMB-STONE. PI. xxx., n. 10. Three such are the 
arms of Tomb. 

TOPAZ, a stone of a gold colour, by some used instead 
of or. 

TORN, an ancient name in heraldry for a spinning- 

TORQUED, wreathed or twisted, from the Latin 

TORQUED, sometimes applied to a dolphin hauriant, 

198 Dictionary [TOR-TEE. 

which forms a figure similar to the letter S. See 
PL xvi., n. 18. 


TORTEAUX is a roundle of a red colour. PL vm, n. 11. 

TORTOISE ; vert, a tortoise passant argent ; name, 
Gawdy. PL xxvi., n. 13. 

TOURNE, a French term synonymous with EEGARDANT. 

TOWER ; argent, a tower sable, having a scaling-ladder 
raised against it in bend sinister. This is the arms of 
Cardivar ap Dinwall, Lord of Aberser, in South Wales. 
PL xxxix., n. 10. 

TOWERED, a term applied to the towers or turrets on 
walls or castles, also applied to towers when surmounted 
by smaller towers or turrets ; as, azure, a tower triple- 
towered or ; name, Towers. 

TRANSFLUENT, a term for water running through the 
arches of a bridge. See PL xxxix., n. 22. 

TRANSPOSED is when bearings are placed out of their 
usual situation. See PL xxxvni., n. 33. 

TREFOIL, or three-leaved grass. PL vi., n. 21. Argent, 
a fess nebule between three trefoils slipt gules ; name, 
Thorp, of Gloucestershire. 

TREILLE, or latticed; it differs from fretty, for the 
pieces in the treille do not cross under and over each 
other, but are carried throughout, and are always 
nailed in the joints. Argent, treille gules, nailed or; 
name, Bardonenche. See PL XLL, n. 5. 

TRESSURE, allowed to be half the breadth of the orle, 
and is borne flory and counterflory : it passes round the 
field in the same shape and form as the escutcheon, 
and is generally borne double, and sometimes treble. 
PL v., n. 5. PL xix., n. 9. If a coat be impaled with 
another, either on the dexter or sinister side, and hath 

TRE-TRL] of Technical Terms. 199 

a tressure, the tressure must finish at the impaled line, 
and not be continued round the coat. The double 
" tressure flowerie " encompasses the lion of Scotland, 
and is frequently met with in the arms of the Scotch 

TEESTLE, or three-legged stool. PI. xxvm., n. 14. 
Gules ; a fess humette, between three trestles argent ; name, 

TREVET. PI. xxvm., n. 13. Argent, a trevet sable ; 
name, Trevett. The trevet is termed from its three feet, 
a tripod, which in Greek signifies a stool of so many 

TREVET, triangular. PI. xxxv., n. 12. Argent, a 
triangular trevet sable ; name, Barkle. 

TRICORPORATED is a lion with three bodies issuing 
from the three corners of the escutcheon, and meeting 
under one head in the fess point ; this device was borne 
by Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, brother to 
King Edward I. PL xxxn., n. 16. 

TRIDENT, a three-pronged barbed fork, generally 
placed in the hand of Neptune. 

TRIPARTED, divided into three parts. 

TRIPARTED, a cross-nory. PI. xxxvu., n. 9. 

TRIPPANT, or TRIPPING; this term is proper for 
beasts of chase, as passant for those of prey; repre- 
sented with one foot up, as it were on a trot. See 
PI. ix., n. 14. Argent, a stag tripping proper, attired and 
unguled or ; name, Holme. 

Counter-Tripping is when two beasts are tripping, 
the one passing one way, and the other another, as the 
example, PL ix., n. 10 ; also, sable, two hinds counter - 
tripping in fess argent; name, Cottingham. See PL 
xxxi., n. 13. 

200 Dictionary [TRI-TUR. 


TRIUMPHAL CROWN was composed of laurel, and 
granted to those generals who had vanquished their 
enemies, and had the honour of a triumph granted to 
them by the Eoman Senate. PL XLV., n. 25. In after 
ages it was changed for gold, and not restricted to 
those that actually triumphed, but presented on several 
other accounts, as by foreign states and provinces to 
their patrons and benefactors. 


TRUMPET. PI. xxix., n. 15. Argent, a chevron en- 
grailed, between three trumpets sable ; name, Thunder. 

TRUNCATED, or TRUNKED, a term applied to the main 
stem of trees, &c., when couped, or cut off smooth. 
See the example, PI. XVIIL, n. 14. 

TRUNDLES, quills of gold thread, used by the em- 
broiderers, and borne in the arms of their Company. 
PI. xxxiv., n. 22. 

TRUSSING; the example is a falcon, his wings ex- 
panded, trussing a mallard. See PL xxxvm., n. 23. 

TURKEY. PL xxix., n. 11. Argent, a chevron sable, 
between three turkey-cocks in their pride proper ; name, Teo. 


TURNPIKE. See the example, PL xxiv., n. 4 : also 
PL xxxiii., n. 10, three such, sable, on a field argent ; 
name, Woolstone. 

TURNSTILE, or TURNPIKE. PL xxvin., n. 11. This 
example is borne as a crest by Sir Grey Skipwith, Bart., 
but now blazoned as a " reel, proper." 

TURRET, a small tower on the top of another. 

TURRET. See PL xxix., n. 3. Sable, on a bend 
between two turrets argent, three pheons gules, on a chief or, 
a lion passant, between two lozenges azure ; name, Johnson. 

TUB-VAL] of Technical Terms. 201 

TURRETED, having small turrets on the top of a wall 
or tower, as PI. xxxrx., n. 19. 


TUSK, the long tooth of an elephant, boar, &c. 

TUSKED, a term used in blazonry, when the tusks of 
an animal are of a different tincture from its body. 

UMBRATED, signifies shadowed. 

UNDE, or UNDY, the same as WAVED, or WAVY. 

UNGULED, signifies hoofed. 

UNICORN, a fabulous beast, well known as one of the 
supporters of the royal arms. PL xxxi., n. 5. Argent, 
a unicorn passant gules, armed or ; name, Stasam. 

UNION, CROSS OF THE. This form was settled, A.D. 
1707, as the badge of the union between England and 
Scotland, and is blazoned, azure, a saltire argent sur- 
mounted of a cross gules, edged of the second, as in 
PI. xxxvi., n. 27. After the union with Ireland in 1801, 
the cross of St. Patrick argent a saltire gules was incor- 
porated with these, forming, when combined, the 
national flag known as the union jack. 



VAIR, a fur used for lining the mantles of ofiicials of 
high rank, supposed to have been derived from sewing 
together the skins of a small animal of a bluish tinge 
on the back and white on the belly; therefore this 
fur is always understood to be argent and azure, unless 
any other metal or tincture be specified. PL n., n. 4. 
Argent, a border vair. PL v., n. 16. 

VAIR, ANCIENT, as appears by many good MSS., was 
represented by lines nebule, separated by straight lines, 
in fess. See the example, PL XL. 

VAIR, A CROSS, is one composed of four pieces of 

202 Dictionary [VAI-VER. 

vair, their points turned to one another, in the form of 
a cross. PI. xxxvi., n. 34. 

VAIR-EN-POINT is a fur with the cups ranged npon a 
line counterwise, argent and azure. PL XL. 

VALLARY-CROWN was of gold, with palisades fixed 
against the rim; it was given by the general of the 
army to a captain or soldier that first entered the 
enemy's camp, by forcing the palisade. PI. XLV., n. 21. 

VAMBRACED, signifies an arm habited in armour. See 
PL xxxiv., n. 34. Gules, three dexter arms vambraced, 
in pale proper ; name, Armstrong. 

VAMPLATE, a piece of steel formed like a funnel, 
placed on tilting-spears just before the hand, to secure 
it, and so fixed as to be taken off at pleasure. 

VANNET, a term by some French authors for the 
escallop or cockle-shell, when represented without ears. 
See PL xxxviii., n. 11. 



VENUS, one of the planets, used for the colour vert. 

VERDOY signifies a bordure to be charged with any 
land of vegetables. The example is, argent a ~bordure 
azure, verdoy of eight trefoils, argent. PL xxxvin., n. 12. 
It would be more heraldic to say, argent, a border 
cJ/arged with eight trefoils, argent. 

VERRY, or VAIRE, always consists of four distinct 
colours, whose names must be mentioned in the blazon, 
as thus ; verry, or, azure, sable, gules, &c. PL XL. 

VERT signifies the colour green : it is represented in 
engraving by diagonal lines from the dexter chief to 
the sinister base. PL n. 

VERVELS, small rings fixed to the end of the jesses, 

VIB-VUL.] of Technical Terms. 203 

through which, falconers put a string in order to fasten 
the bells to falcons' legs. 

VIROLLES, or VERULES, a term applied to the orna- 
mental rings of a hunting-horn, when set round with 
metal or colour different from the horn. 

VOIDED is when an ordinary has nothing but an 
edge to show its form : all the inward part supposed 
to be cut out or evacuated, so that the field appears 
through : therefore it is needless to express the colour 
or metal of the voided part, because it must of course 
ba that of the field. PI. xxxvii., n. 17. 

VOIDERS. These figures are formed like the flanches 
and flasques, yet they differ from both as being always 
smaller, and not so circular. PL xxxv., n. 7. 

Voider, according to Holme, is certainly a diminutive 
of the flanch, and, by reason of its smallness, cannot 
be charged. It is a bearing ; but being very rarely used 
as such, several heraldic writers do not mention it. 

VOL, among the French heralds, signifies both the 
wings of a bird borne in armoury, as being the whole 
that makes the flight. PI. xxxv., n. 16. 

DEMI- VOL is when only a single wing is borne. PL rx., 

VOLANT : thus we term any bird that is flying. PI. rs., 

VORANT : a term for any fish, bird, beast, or reptile, 
swallowing any other creature whole. PL xvi., n. 19. 

VULNED signifies wounded, and the blood dropping 
therefrom, as is represented on the breast of the example. 
PL xvi., n. 5. Likewise a heart vulned. PL xxxv., 
EL 18. Argent, a fess gules, between three hearts vulned, 
and distilling drops of Hood on the sinister side proper ; 
name, Tote. 

204 Dictionary [WAK-WEL. 

WAKE'S KNOT. See the example, PL xxxn., n. 34. 


WARDON, the name of a pear, so called from having 
been first cultivated at Wardon Abbey, Beds, which 
bore three such pears as its arms ; the same arms were 
subsequently assumed by the family of Warden, in 
allusion to the name. 

WASTEL-CAKE, a round cake of bread. 

WATER-BAGS. PL xxx., n. 18. Argent, two water- 
bags sable, hooped together or ; name, Banister. These 
bags anciently were carried by the help of the hoop, put 
about the neck. This is merely a variety of the next 

WATER BOUGET, a vessel anciently used by soldiers 
to fetch water to the camp. See PL xxix., n. 16 ; and 
PL vi., n. 20. 

WATTLED, a term for the gills of a cock, &c., when 
of a different tincture from its body. 

WAVY, formed like waves, having always three 
risings, like waves rolling ; also a line of partition. 
PI. in. 

WEARE, WEIR, or dam, in fess. It is made with 
stakes and osier twigs, interwoven as a fence against 
water. PL xxxv., n. 25. Some authors term it a Haie. 

WEEL: this instrument is used to catch fish. PL 
xxxiv., n. 12. Argent, a chevron ermine, between three 
weels, their hoops upwards, vert; name, Wylley. See 
another, PL xxxii., n. 30. Or, a chevron between three 
such weels sable ; name, Folborne. 

WELL, as example, PL xxxv., n. 8. Gules, three wells 
argent ; name, Hadiswell. Also PL xxxv., n. 9, sable, 
three wells argent ; name, Borton. 

WELL-BUCKET, argent, a well-bucket sable, handle and 

WEL-WBE.] of Technical Terms. 205 

hoops or; name, Pemberton. See the example, PI. 
xxxvi., n. 30. 

WELKE ; the name of a shell-fish. PI. vm., n. 7. Sable 
a fess engrailed between three welkes ; name, Shelley, of 
Sussex, Bart. 


WHARROW-SPINDLE : an instrument formerly used 
by women to spin as they walk, sticking the distaff in 
their girdle, and whirling the spindle round, pendant 
at the thread. PI. xxxiv., n. 13. 

WHALE'S HEAD. See PI. xxxvm., n. 24. Argent, 
three whales' heads, sable ; name, Whalley. 

French always represent the wings of the eagle with a 
small feather between the pinion feathers. See PI. 
xxxvm., n. 29. 

WINDMILL-SAIL. PI. xxxra., n, 24. Azure, a chevron 
between three windmill-sails ; name, Milnes. 

WINGED, the term used in blazonry when the wings 
are of a different tincture from the body. 

WINNOWING-BASKET, for winnowing of corn. PL 
xxv., n. 17. Azure, three fans (or winnowing-baskets) 
or; name, Septvans. 

WOLF. PI. xxxi., n. 10. Argent, a wolf passant 
sable; name, Walsalle. 

WOOL-CARD, PL xxx., n. 1. Sable, three wool-cards, 
or; name, Cardington. 

WREATH, an attire for the head, made of linen or 
silk, of two different tinctures twisted together, which 
the ancient knights wore when equipped for tourna- 
ments ; the colours of the silk are usually taken from 

206 Dictionary of Technical Terms. [WEE-ZUL. 

the principal metal and colour contained in the coat of 
arms of the bearer ; unless the contrary be specially 
mentioned, the crest should always be placed upon a 
wreath so formed. PI. XLV., n. 28. 

WREATHED, surrounded by a wreath. Savages or 
wild men are always drawn wreathed around the 
temples and loins, generally with oak or ivy leaves. 
See PI. xviii., n. 24. Ordinaries are termed wreathed 
or torqued when twisted like a wreath. Argent, a fess 
wreathed azure and gules ; name, CarmicJiael. 

WYVEEN. See PI. vn., n. 24. Argent, a wyvern gules ; 
name, Drakes. 

YATES, an ancient name in armoury for gates. 

ZODIAC, in bend sinister, with three of the signs on 
it, viz., Libra, Leo, and Scorpio. See PL xvni., n. 1. 
This coat is said to appertain to the king of Spain, 
Columbus having first discovered South America. 

ZULE, a chess rook, borne in the coat of Zulenstein. 






Addorsed / 


Addosse X 





Aiglettes, Aiglons 

Aquilse Mutilse 






Annulus, vel Annel 








Armoury, Armory 






Crux Avellana 









Jugarise fasciolaB 






Transverse fasciolatus 




Barry Pily 

Parti Emancbe 





Barbed and Crested 

Barbe et Creste' 

Barbula et Crista 














Per Bend Sinister 


Contra vittatua 




Bendy of Six 


Bend Sinister 




Heraldic Terms. 




In bend 

En Bande 

Oblique dextrorsus 



Oblique dextrorsus 







Bizantius nummus 

















Ora obvertantia 

Caltraps . 


Murices or Tribuli 



Quadrans Angularis 














Lusorius Latrunculus 




Per Chevron 









In Chief 

In Chef 

In Summo 















Compony < 




Centre Compone 

Coun terchanged 

Parti de 1'un en 1'autre Transmutatus 






Contraquadrate par- 





Counter- Vair 









Utroque latere ac- 







A latere disjunctum 













Luna Cornuta 

Heraldic Terms. 














En Croix 

In modumcrucis col- 





Dance tte 













Diminutiones armo- 



































Contre Hermines 
















Per Fess 


Transverse sectum 











Orbiculi segmentuni 






Frectum simplex 















Fascis frumentarius 



Obverso ore 











Heraldic Terms. 






Guttis respersum 





























Ad invicem tergum 





















Lam passe 




Rhombulis inter- 




















Fer de moulin 

Ferrum molendina- 












Eotula Calcaris 










In Orle 


Ad oram positus 

Over all 

Sur le tout 

Toti superinductum 





En Pal 

In Palum collocatus 





Palis exoratus 



Palus minutus 










Heraldic Terms. 













Fer de dard 

Ferrum jacul 



Pila Pontis 









Color naturalis 



Purpureus color 









Cumulationes ar- 


Quarterly Quartered 

Contre escartelent 











Armes parlantea 




















Ater, or Niger 




Party -per-Saltire 

Escartele en sautoir 


Pose en sautoir 

In decussim dispo- 

























En pied 



















More suo incedens 







Heraldic Terms. 






Viridis color 













Water Bouget 


liter Aquarius mill 






Tournant d'Eau 


Two Wings expanded 



A Wing 

Un Demi Vol 

Ala simplex 








of Iftanfc anir JJoiuIitg. 

HONOUR, says Cicero, is the reward of virtue, as infamy 
is the recompense of vice ; so that he who aspires to 
honour should arrive at it by the way of virtue ; which 
the Romans expressed by so building the Temple of 
Honour, that there was no possibility of entering it 
without first passing through the Temple of Virtue. 


The King is so called from the Saxon word honing, 
or cuning, from can, intimating power, or ken, know- 
ledge, wherewith every sovereign should especially be 

The supreme executive power of the British dominions 
is vested, by the English laws, in a single person, the 
King or Queen; for it matters not to which sex the 
crown descends ; the person entitled to it, whether 
male or female, is immediately invested with all the 
ensigns, rights and prerogatives of sovereign sway. 
What follows, therefore, is applicable equally to queen- 
regnant as to king. See QUEEN, p. 217. 

The king is styled Father of his country; and 
because the protection of his subjects belongs to his 
care and office, the militia is annexed to his crown. 
He is also called the fountain of honour, because in him 
is vested the power of bestowing titles and dignities. 

214 Degrees of Nobility. 

A king is to fight the battles of his people, and to see 
right and justice done to them; as also, according to 
his coronation oath, to preserve the rights and privileges 
of our holy church ; the royal prerogative belonging 
to the crown ; the laws and customs of the realm ; to 
do justice, show mercy, keep peace and unity, &c. ; and 
he hath power of pardoning where the law condemns. 

The king being principium, caput, et finis parliamenti, 
may of his mere will and pleasure convoke, adjourn, 
remove, and dissolve parliaments ; as also to any bill 
that is passed by both Houses he may refuse to give 
his royal assent without rendering a reason ; without 
which assent it cannot pass into a law. He may also 
increase the number * of the peers of the realm. 

The king of England is deemed a constituent part 
of the supreme legislative power, and therefore is not 
himself bound by any general act of parliament, unless 
especially named. He is the generalissimo of the 
kingdom, with the power of raising and regulating 
fleets and armies the fountain of honour, office, and 
privilege head and supreme governor of the national 
church, the fountain of justice and general conservator 
of the peace of the kingdom his majesty being supposed, 
in law, to be always present in all his courts, though 
he cannot personally distribute justice. His judges 
are the mirror by which the king's image is reflected, f 

Besides the attribute of sovereignty, the law ascribes 
to the king, in his political capacity, absolute perfection : 

* Since the union of England and Scotland, the king can 
neither make an English peer nor a Scotch peer ; all the peers 
that the king of Great Britain now creates, are either of the 
United Kingdom or of Ireland. 

t Plowden. 

The King. 215 

the " king can do no wrong ;" which ancient and funda- 
mental maxim is not to be understood as if everything 
transacted by the government was -of course just and 
lawful, but means only two things : First, that what- 
ever is exceptionable in the conduct of public affairs is 
not to be imputed to the king ; nor is he answerable 
for it personally to his people. And, 2ndly, that the 
prerogative of the crown extends not to do any injury ; 
it is created for the benefit of the people ; and therefore 
cannot be exerted to their prejudice. Or perhaps it 
means that, although the king is subject to the infirmities 
and passions of other men, the constitution has pre- 
scribed no mode by which he can be made personally 
amenable for any wrong that he may actually do. The 
law will therefore presume no wrong, where it has pro- 
vided no remedy. The inviolability of the king is essen- 
tially necessary to the free exercise of those high 
prerogatives which are vested in him, not for his own 
private splendour and gratification, but for the security 
and preservation of the real happiness and liberty of 
his subjects. 

The law ascribes to the king's majesty, in his poli- 
tical capacity, an absolute immortality. The king never 
dies. Henry, Edward, or George, may die; but the 
king survives them all. For, immediately upon the 
decease of the reigning prince in his natural capacity, 
his kingship, or imperial dignity, by act of law, without 
any interregnum or interval, is vested at once in his 
heir, who is eo instanti Icing, to all intents and purposes. 
And so tender is the law of supposing even a possibility 
of his death, that his natural dissolution is generally 
called his demise ; demissus regis, vel coroncB : an ex- 
pression signifying merely a transfer of property. 

216 Degrees of Nobility. 

By letters patent, his majesty may erect new coun- 
ties, universities, bishoprics, cities, boroughs, colleges, 
hospitals, schools, fairs, markets, courts of judicature, 
forests, chases, free warrens, &c. ; and no forest or chase 
is to be made, nor castle, fort, or tower to be built, 
without his special licence. He has also power to 
coin money, and to settle the denomination or value 
for which the coin is to pass current. 

The dominions of the kings of England were first 
England, and all the sea round about Great Britain and 
Ireland, and all the isles adjacent, even to the shores of 
the neighbouring nations ; and our law saith the sea is 
of the legiance of the king, as well as the land ; and as 
a mark thereof, the ships of foreigners have anciently 
asked leave to fish and pass in these seas, and do at 
this day lower their topsails to all the king's ships of 
war ; and all children borne upon these seas (as it some- 
times happens) are accounted natural-born subjects to 
the king of Great Britain, and need not be naturalized 
as others born out of his dominions. 

To England, Henry I. annexed Normandy, and 
Henry II. Ireland, our kings being styled only lords of 
Ireland till the 33rd of Henry VIII., although they 
had all kingly jurisdiction before. Henry II. also 
annexed the dukedoms of Guyenne and Anjou, the 
counties of Poitou, Touraine, and Maine; Edward I. 
all Wales ; and Edward III. the right, though not the 
possession, of France ; but Henry Y. added both ; and 
his son, Henry VI., was crowned and recognised by all 
the states of the realm at Paris. King James I. added 
Scotland, and since that time there have been super- 
added considerable parts of America, the East Indies, as 
well as that almost fifth quarter of the world, Australia. 

The Queen. 217 

Of the sacred person and life of the king our laws 
and customs are so tender, that it is made high treason 
only to imagine or intend his death : and, as he is the 
father of his country, so every subject is obliged by his 
allegiance to defend him, as well in his natural as 
political capacity; for the law saith, the life and 
member of every subject is at the service of the 


The Queen is so called from the Saxon word 
cuningine, as the king from honing. 

The Queen of England is either queen-regnant, 
queen-consort, or queen-dowager. The queen-regnant, 
or sovereign, is she who holds the crown in her own 
right; as the first (and perhaps the second) Queen 
Mary, Queen Elizabeth, Queen Anne, and her present 
Most Gracious Majesty, Queen Victoria; and such a 
queen has the same powers, prerogatives, rights, digni- 
ties, and duties, as if she were king. 

The queen-consort is the wife of the reigning king ; 
and she, by virtue of her marriage, is participant of 
divers prerogatives above other women. 

She is a public person, exempt and distinct from the 
king ; and, not like other married women, so closely 
connected as to have lost all legal or separate existence 
so long as the marriage continues. For the queen- 
consort is of ability to purchase lands, and to convey 
them ; to make leases, to grant copyholds, and do other 
acts of ownership, without the concurrence of her lord, 
which no other married woman can do. She is also 
capable of taking a grant from the king, which no 
other wife is from her husband. The queen-consort of 
England has separate courts and officers distinct from 

218 Degrees of Nobility. 

the king's, not only in matters of ceremony, but even of 
law ; and her attorney and solicitor-general are entitled 
to a place within the bar of his majesty's courts, 
together with the king's counsel. She may likewise 
sue and be sued alone, without joining her husband. 
She may also have separate property in goods as well as 
lands, and has a right to dispose of them by will. In 
short, she is in all legal proceedings looked upon as a 
single not as a married woman. The reason given for 
which is this : the wisdom of the common law would not 
have the king (whose continual care and study ought to 
be for the public good) troubled and disquieted on account 
of his wife's domestic affairs ; wherefore it vests in his 
queen a power of transacting her own concerns without 
the intervention of the king, as if she was an unmarried 

The queen-consort-has also many exemptions and 
minute prerogatives. For instance, she pays no toll ; 
nor is she liable to any amercement in any court. 
But, in general, except where the law has expressly 
declared her exempted, she is upon the same footing 
with other subjects ; being to all intents and purposes 
the king's subject, and not his equal. 

Though the queen-consort is in all respects a subject, 
yet, in point of security of life and person, she is put 
on the same footing as the king. It is equally treason 
to compass or imagine the death of our lady the king's 
companion, as of the king himself. If, however, the 
queen be accused of any species of treason, she shall 
(whether consort or dowager) be tried by the peers of 

A queen-dowager is the widow of the king, and as 
such enjoys most of the privileges belonging to her as 

Eoijal Style. 219 

queen-consort. But it is not high treason to conspire 
her death, because the succession to the crown is not 
thereby endangered. Yet still, pro dignitate regali 
(for sustaining the royal dignity), no man can marry 
a queen-dowager without special licence from the 
reigning sovereign, on pain of forfeiting his lands and 
goods. But a queen-dowager, when married again to a 
subject, does not lose her regal dignity, as peeresses- 
dowager do their peerage when they marry com- 

THE Eoyal Style, as settled on the 5th of November, 
1800, in consequence of the union with Ireland, which 
was to commence from the 1st of January, 1801, runs 
thus : "Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Queen, 
Defender of the Faith; and of the United Church of 
England and Ireland, on earth the supreme head." 
In the Latin it is differently expressed : " Victoria, Dei 
Gratia Britanniarum Kegina," &c. ; the word Britan- 
niarum, first introduced upon the occasion, being 
regarded as expressive, under one term, of the incorpo- 
rated kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. 
James I., when he ascended the throne of England, 
revived the title which had been laid aside by an 
edict of Egbert; in the commencement of the ninth 
century, and styled himself King of Great Britain, 
comprehending under that appellation his dominion 

220 Degrees of Nobility. 

over England and Scotland. Before the " Union of 
the Crowns," Britain alone was in general used in the 
style of our sovereigns, to signify England and Wales. 
Alfred, however, was called Governor of the Christians 
of Britain ; Edgar, Monarch of Britain ; Henry II., 
King of Britain; and, nearly synonymous with the 
latter, John was styled, Hex Britonium. 

The title of King of Ireland, was first granted by 
the Pope to Henry II., though it was not regu- 
larly added to the royal dignities, until assumed by 
Henry VIII., in 1541 ; before that time the dominion 
of the English sovereigns over that island was usually 
expressed by the term " Lord ;" and it is a fact, 
that our monarchs publicly denominated some of the 
Irish chieftains kings, while they themselves were 
content with the subordinate honour of "Lord." It 
should be remembered, however, that the title of 
king did not invariably denote sovereignty ; and, ac- 
cording to the ancient feudal system, of which those 
Irish kings formed a part, many of the barons who 
were dignified with that high-sounding appellation, 
were in a state of vassalage. The King of Majorca 
was tributary to the King of Arragon; the King of 
Man to the King of Scotland ; and the Kings of Ire- 
land to the King of England; to which might be 
added other instances from the early history of this 
country ; while even so late as the reign of Richard II. 
the whole of the kings of Ireland were tributary to 
Eobert de Vere, duke of that Island. 

The title of Defender of the Faith, still retained in 
the royal style, belonged anciently, to the kings of 
England, though it had not been generally assumed 
by them. "We are and will be Defenders of the 

Royal Style. 221 

Catholic Faith," is an expression to be found in writs 
of Eichard II. Pope Leo X., in the year 1521, re- 
newed that dignity, which was afterwards confirmed 
by Clement VII., in consequence of Henry VIII. 
having written an answer, then much esteemed, to 
Luther's book on the Babylonian Captivity. Upon 
the suppression of the monasteries, the Pope issued a 
bull, annulling this title ; but his attempt was as futile 
in that respect, as was his silly effort to depose that 
sovereign; the English Parliament, in the 35th year 
of Henry's reign, established it beyond the power of 
change from foreign interposition, giving that monarch 
not only a complete confirmation of the title, but the 
power of exercising it. The Pope's supremacy in 
England was totally suppressed, and the king acknow- 
ledged Supreme Head of the Cliurch, as well as of the 
state ; thereby laying the foundation of that reformation 
which was afterwards so completely and happily ac- 
complished in this kingdom. 

Henry VIII. was the first King of England who 
assumed the title of Majesty, which is still retained. 
Before that reign the sovereigns were addressed by 
the style of " My Liege" and " Your Grace ;" the 
latter of which epithets was originally conferred on 
Henry IV. "Excellent Grace" was given to Henry VI. ; 
" Most High and Mighty Prince," to Edward IV. ; 
" Highness" to Henry VII. ; which last expression 
was sometimes used to Henry VIII., and sometimes 
" G)-ace ;" until near the end of his reign, when, in 
matters of state, they gave way to the more lofty and 
appropriate appellation of "Majesty" being the ex- 
pression with which Francis I. addressed him at their 
interview in 1520. The Emperor Charles V. had, the 

222 Degrees of Nolility. 

preceding year, first assumed the novel and high- 
sounding title of Majesty ; and the polished French 
monarch lost not so favourable an opportunity of com- 
plimenting our then youthful Henry. Elizabeth was, 
however, frequently addressed as the " Queen's High- 
ness," as well as the " Queen's Majesty" James I. com- 
pleted the present style of "Most Excellent Majesty,' 
or "Sacred Majesty" the latter being in allusion to 
the inviolability or sanctity of the royal person and 

The title of her present Majesty is as follows : 

" Her most Excellent Majesty Victoria, of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, 
Defender of the Faith, Sovereign of the Orders of the 
Garter, Thistle, Bath, St. Patrick, St. Michael, St. 
George, and the Star of India." 

The royal arms are as follows : 

Quarterly, first and fourth gules, three lions passant- 
gardant in pale, or, for England; second, or, a lion 
rampant, within a double tressure, flory-counterflory, 
gules, for Scotland; third, azure, a harp, or, stringed 
argent, for Ireland; the whole encircled with the 
garter and its motto. 

Crest. Upon the royal helmet the imperial crown, 
proper, thereon a lion statant-gardant, or, imperially 
crowned of the first. 

Supporters. Dexter, a lion rampant- gardant, or, im- 
perially crowned proper; sinister, a unicorn, argent, 
armed, crined and unguled or, gorged with a coronet 
composed of crosses pattee and fleurs-de-lis, with a 
chain affixed thereto, passing between the fore-legs and 
reflexed over the back of the last. 

Motto.- DIEU ET MON DROIT is in the compartment 

The Prince of Wales. 223 

below the shield, with the union roses, shamrock and 
thistle, engrafted on one stem. 


Since the union with Scotland, his title has been 
" Prince of Great Britain, but ordinarily created Prince 
of Wales ;" and as eldest son to the King or Queen- 
regnant of England, he is Duke of Cornwall from his 
birth, as likewise Duke of Eothsay, and Seneschal of 

His mantle, which he wears at royal coronations, is 
doubled below the elbow with ermine, spotted diamond- 
wise; but the robe which he wears in parliament is 
adorned on the shoulders with five bars or guards of 
ermine, set at a distance one from the other, with gold 
lace above each bar. 

The younger sons of the sovereigns of England are 
by courtesy styled princes by birth, as are all their 
daughters princesses ; and the title of royal highness is 
given to all the king's children, both sons and daughters, 
and her present Majesty, by letters patent under the 
Great Seal, in February 1864, was pleased to declare 
her royal will and pleasure that, besides the children of 
the sovereigns of these realms, the children of the sons 
of any sovereign of Great Britain and Ireland shall 
have and at all times hold and enjoy the same title. 


The title and degree of a duke is of more ancient 
standing in other countries than with us; for at the 
time of the Conquest, the king himself was Duke of 
Normandy, which perhaps was the reason that neither 

224 Degrees of Nobility. 

he nor his successors for several ages thought fit to 
raise a subject to so high a dignity. 

The first duke we meet with in England, properly so 
called, was Edward, surnamed the Black Prince, eldest 
son to King Edward III., whom his father, on the 17th 
March, 1337, created in parliament Duke of Cornwall : 
by which creation the first-born sons of the sovereign 
of England are Dukes of Cornwall from their birth. 

A duke is said to be so called from dux, a leader or 
captain, because the duces of the ancient Eomans were 
leaders of an army, and chosen in the field, either by 
casting lots, or by the common voice ; but now the 
dignity of duke is generally conferred by kings and 
princes, and descends to the heir ; though in some 
nations sovereigns are so called, as Duke of Savoy, 
Brunswick, &c. 

Dukes, marquesses, earls, and viscounts were for- 
merly created by investiture with much ceremony. 
The creation is now simply by letters patent of the 
sovereign under the great seal. 

A duke's mantle or robe of estate is the same as that 
of the prince, with this difference, that it has only four 
guards of ermine with a gold lace above each, that of 
the prince having five. 

The mantle which a duke wears at the coronation of 
a king or queen over his surcoat, &c., is of crimson 
velvet, lined with white taffeta, and is doubled with 
ermine below the elbow, and spotted with four rows of 
spots on each shoulder. 

All dukes' eldest sons, by the courtesy of England, 
are from their birth styled marquises if their fathers 
enjoy that title ; if there is no marquisate in the family 
they take the next highest title ; thus the eldest son of 

Marquis. 225 

the Duke of Northumberland has the courtesy title of 
Earl Percy, there being no marquisate among the family 
honours. The dukedom of Manchester has neither 
marquisate nor earldom, so the eldest son is termed 
Viscount Mandeville. The younger sons are all styled 
lords, with the addition of their Christian name, as Lord 
Thomas, Lord James, &c. ; and all dukes' daughters are 
styled Ladies. 

A duke has the title of grace ; and in formal super- 
scriptions or addresses is styled, most high, potent, and 
noble prince ; and dukes of the royal blood, most high, 
most mighty, and illustrious princes. 

For coronet, see PL XLIII., n. 6. 


A marquis, which by the Saxons was called marJcen- 
reve, and signified a governor or ruler of marches and 
frontier countries, hath been a title with us but of late 
years, the first being Eobert Vere, Earl of Oxford, who, 
by King Eichard II., in 1387, was created Marquis of 
Dublin, and from thence it became a title of honour ; 
for, in former times, those that governed the inarches 
were called lord marchers, and not marquises. 

His robes are the same as that of a duke, except that 
he has only three guards and a half instead of four on 
the shoulder, and his coronation mantle has four rows 
of spots on the right shoulder and but three on the 
left, whereas a duke's has four rows on each. 

The honour of marquis is hereditary, as is that of a 
duke, earl, viscount, and baron ; and the eldest son of 
a marquis, by the courtesy of England, is called earl, 
or by the next highest title in the family when there is 
no earldom; thus the Marquis of Salisbury's eldest 


226 Degrees of Nobility. 

son is by courtesy Viscount Cranbourne. The younger 
sons of marquises are called lords by their Christian 
names, as Lord John, &c. ; and the daughters of 
marquises are born ladies ; the eldest son of a marquis 
ranks next beneath an earl. 


The next degree of honour is an earl, which title 
came from the Saxons ; for in the ancient Anglo-Saxon 
government, earldoms of counties were not only digni- 
ties of honour, but offices of justice, having the charge 
and custody of the county whereof they were earls, and 
for assistance having their deputy, called vicecomes, 
which office is now managed by sheriffs. The first earl 
in Britain that was invested by girding with the sword, 
was Hugh de Pusay, or Pudsey, Bishop of Durham, who, 
by King Richard L, was created Earl of Northumberland. 

An earl's robes nowise differ from a duke's or 
marquis's, except that a duke's mantle has four guards, 
a marquis's three and a half, and an earl's but three, 
with a gold lace : and his coronation mantle is the 
same as theirs, with only this difference a duke's has 
four rows of spots on each shoulder ; a marquis's four 
on the right, and but three on the left ; and an earl's 
has but three on each. His cap is also the same, but 
his coronet is different; for as a duke's has only 
leaves, a marquis's leaves and pearls of equal height, 
that of an earl has the pearls much higher than the 
leaves. PI. XLIII., n. 8. 

After a man is created an earl, viscount, or receives 
any other title of honour, above the title he enjoyed 
before, it becomes part of his name, and not an addition 
only ; and in all legal proceedings he ought to be styled 

Viscount. 227 

by that of his dignity. An earl has the title of lord- 
ship ; and, being written to, is styled right honourable. 
By the courtesy of England, an earl's eldest son is 
born a viscount if there is such a title attached to the 
name, otherwise he is called lord only, as in the case 
of the Earl of Derby, whose eldest son is Lord Stanley, 
and an earl's daughters are all ladies ; but his younger 
sons have no title of peerage. 


The next degree of honour to an earl is that of 
viscount, which was anciently an office under an earl, 
who, being the king's immediate officer in his county, 
and his personal attendance being often required at 
court, had his deputy to look after the affairs of the 
county, which officer is now called a sheriff, retaining 
the name of his substitution (in Latin vicecomes) ; but 
about the 18th of Henry VI., 1440, it became a degree 
of honour, by his conferring this title upon John Lord 
Beaumont, by letters patent, with the same ceremony 
as that of an earl, marquis, and duke. 

The mantle of a viscount has two guards and a half, 
each having a gold lace ; his coronation mantle has three 
rows of spots on the right shoulder, and two on the left. 

His coronet, which is a circle of gold, is adorned 
with twelve silver balls. PI. XLIII., n. 9. 

The title of a viscount is, right honourable and 
truly noble, or potent lord. 

The eldest son of a viscount has no title of peerage, 
nor are his daughters ladies ; but the eldest son and 
daughter of the first viscount in Great Britain and 
Ireland are said to be the first gentleman and gentle- 
woman without a title in the kingdom. 

228 Degrees of Nobility. 


The two archbishops have superintendence over all 
the churches of England, and in some respects over the 
other bishops ; and the Archbishop of Canterbury has 
a kind of supereminence over the Archbishop of York ; 
for he has power to summon him to a national synod 
or convocation, and is primate of all England, and next 
in rank to the royal family ; precedes not only dukes, 
but all the great officers of the crown ; nor does any, 
except the lord chancellor, or lord keeper, come 
between him and the Archbishop of York. 

He is "primate and metropolitan of all England" and 
has the title of grace given him, and most reverend 
father in God. 

To the Archbishop of Canterbury it properly belongs 
to crown the sovereign, to consecrate a new-made bishop, 
and to call provincial synods : the Bishop of London 
being accounted his provincial dean, the Bishop of 
Winchester his chancellor, and the Bishop of Eochester 
his chaplain. 

The Archbishop of York, who is "primate of England, 
and metropolitan of Ms province," has the honour to 
crown the queen-consort, and to be her perpetual 
chaplain : he hath also the title of grace, and most 
reverend father in God. 

Next to the two archbishops in the episcopal college, 
the bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester have 
always the precedence, by a statute made 21 Hen. 
VIII. ; end all the other bishops according to the 
priority of their consecrations. 

The Bishop of London precedes, as being bishop of 
the capital city of England, and provincial dean of 

Barons. 229 

Canterbury, the Bishop of Durham, as Earl of Sedburg ; 
and the Bishop of Winchester, as prelate of the order 
of the Garter. 

All bishops (as spiritual barons) are said to be three 
ways barons of the realm, viz. by writ, patent, and 
consecration; they precede all under the degree of 
viscounts, having always their seat on the sovereign's 
right hand in the parliament-house ; and being the 
fathers and guardians of the church, they are styled 
fathers in God. 

As the two archbishops are called most reverend, 
and have the title of grace, so the inferior bishops are 
called right reverend, and have the title of lordship 
given them. 

A bishop's robe, in parliament, is of fine scarlet 
cloth, having a long train, and is doubled on the 
shoulders with miniver, edged with white ermine, as is 
the bosom ; and when he goes to the House of Lords 
(the sovereign being there), his train is supported by 
four chaplains to the door of the house ; after which, 
by a red riband fixed to the end of the train and tied in 
a loop, he supports it himself, the loop being put over 
his right wrist ; and in that form he takes his seat, 
having a four-square cap on his head. 


A temporal baron is an hereditary dignity of nobility 
and honour next to a bishop ; and of this degree there 
are two sorts in England, viz. a baron by writ, and a 
baron by patent. 

A baron by writ is he unto whom a writ of summons 
in the name of the sovereign is directed, without a 
patent of creation, to come to the parliament, appointed 

230 Degrees of Nobility. 

to be holden at a certain time and place, and there to 
treat and advise with, his sovereign, the prelates, and 
nobility, about the weighty affairs of the nation. 

The first institutor of a baron by patent was King 
Richard II., who in the year 1388, the eleventh of his 
reign, created John Beauchamp, of Holt Castle, Baron 
of Kidderminster, and invested him with a surcoat, 
mantle, hood, cape, and verge. The newly-created 
baron is now brought into the House of Lords in his 
robes, between two peers of the same degree, and 
introduced by Garter King-of-arms, who carries the 
letters patent, the baron himself bearing the writ. A 
baron has but two guards and laces on each shoulder ; 
and his coronation mantle has but two rows of spots on 
each shoulder. 

A baron had no coronet till the reign of King 
Charles II., when he was adorned with a circle of gold, 
and six silver balls set close to the rim, but without 
jewels, as now borne. PI. XLIIL, n. 10. 

A barony by patent goes to the heir-male, being 
almost universally so limited. But a barony by writ 
goes to the heirs-general ; and in case of more female 
heirs than one, it becomes in abeyance, when the king 
may make his option, and grant it to which of them he 
thinks fit. 


The nobility of England enjoy many great privileges, 
the principal of which are as follows : 

They are free from all arrests for debt, as being the 
king's hereditary counsellors : therefore a peer cannot 
be outlawed in any civil action ; and no attachment 
lies against his person ; but execution may be taken 

Baronets. 231 

upon his lands and goods. For the same reason they 
are free from all attendance at court-leet, or sheriffs' 
torns ; or, in case of a riot, from attending the posse 

In criminal causes they are tried by their peers, who 
give their verdict not upon oath, as other juries, but 
upon their honour. A court is built on purpose, in the 
middle of Westminster Hall, which is pulled down 
when their trials are over. 

To secure the honour of, and prevent the spreading 
of any scandal upon, peers, or any great officer of the 
realm, by reports, there is an express law, called scan- 
dcdum magnatum, by which any man convicted of 
making a scandalous report against a peer of the realm, 
though true, is condemned to a fine, and to remain in 
prison till the same be paid. 


This title was originally instituted by King James I., 
the 22nd of May, 1611, by letters patent under the 
great seal, to feed his unpardonable profusion, although 
under the specious plea of assisting him in the reduction 
of Ulster. The whole order was designed by the 
founder not to exceed two hundred persons, of which, 
if any became extinct for want of male-heirs, no new 
creations should be made even to fill the vacancies. 
King James indeed never exceeded the number, except 
by four in the room of the same number who were 
elevated to the peerage. But the great rule of the 
institution was, that none should be admitted unless 
upon good proof that they were men for quality, state 
of living, and good reputation, worthy of it ; and, at the 
least, descended of a grandfather, by the father's side, 

232 Degrees of Nobility. 

that bore arms, and had also a clear revenue in lands 
of at least 1,OOOZ. per annum. 

Those who are conversant with the personal history 
of the kingdom, and will read over the first list, will 
be readily convinced that it was highly respectable, 
and that these requisites were complied with. 

In the reign of Charles II., however, this list of 
baronets was increased to 888 ; and since the reign of 
George II., the number has been unlimited, and the 
qualifications necessary for admission into this order 
have been frequently dispensed with. 

The order of baronets in Scotland was also projected 
by King James, for the plantation and cultivation of 
the province of Nova Scotia, in America ; and his son, 
Charles I., executed his father's plan of institution, 
soon after his accession to the throne, the first person 
dignified with this order being Sir Robert Gordon, of 
Gordonstow, whose patent bears date May 28, 1625. 


ACCORDING to the most authentic accounts, this most 
ancient and noble order was instituted by King Edward 
III., anno 1350, the 24th year of his reign.* 

* The patron, St. George, was a person of great renown and 
chivalry, who, according to the learned Selden, suffered martyr- 
dom at Lydia, under Diocletian. His fame was so great, that 
many temples and monasteries were dedicated to him in the 
Eastern countries, whence his reputation reached England, where 
his memory is still annually celebrated on the 23rd day of April, 
commonly called St. George's clay. 

Knighthood. Order of the Garter. 233 

Eespecting the pristine institution, no positive in- 
formation has yet been elicited. By some writers it is 
said, that the English monarch, having engaged in a 
war against France, to obtain that crown, which he 
claimed as descended to him in right of his mother, 
thought fit to allure to his party all such brave men 
as were eminent commanders and soldiers of fortune, 
with the view of exciting a spirit of emulation and mili- 
tary genius among his nobility. To this end he erected 
a round table in the castle of Windsor, in imitation of 
King Arthur's at Winchester ; and here the numerous 
guests were exercised at tilts and tournaments and 
royally entertained with magnificent feasts, to attach 
them to the king's party. On his return from his 
victorious expedition into France, he rewarded those 
knights who had served him valiantly with this 
distinguished badge or order; the total number so 
honoured being twenty-six, of which the king himself 
was one. 

Other authors assert, that, the same king displaying 
his garter as the signal of a battle which was crowned 
with success (supposed to be Cressy), gave rise to this 

A romantic story has also obtained credence, that the 
fair Countess of Salisbury, in dancing with King 
Edward, let fall her garter, which the king took up, 
and tied round his own leg,* at which the queen being 

* There may be more truth in this tradition than has been 
generally supposed. The Countess of Salisbury alluded to was 
probably that celebrated beauty, Joan Plantagenet, the Fair 
Maid of Kent, ultimately the wife of Edward the Black Prince, 
and mother of Kichard II. Ed. 

234 Degrees of Nobility. 

jealous, or the courtiers smiling, he restored it to its 
fair owner, giving as a motto 

" Honi soit qui mal y pense." 
" Evil be to him (or her) who evil thinks of it." 

Whatever may have been its origin, this order, which 
has ever been considered as the highest in rank and 
dignity in the world, and with which kings and princes 
of all nations have deemed it most honourable to be 
invested, consists of the sovereign and twenty-five com- 
panions, called knights of the Garter. There are 
besides five principal officers : the prelate, annexed to 
the see of Winchester; the chancellor annexed to 
the see of Oxford ; registrar, the dean of Windsor ; 
Garter king of arms ; and usher, or black rod. Of 
these the prelate is the principal, whose office is as 
ancient as the institution. William de Edynton, then 
bishop of Winchester, was the first prelate ; from which 
time his successors, bishops of Winchester, have con- 
tinued prelates to this day. The prelate is obliged to 
wear the habit of the order yearly, on the vigil and day 
of St. George, whether it be in parliament, or on any 
other solemn occasion and festival. 

With respect to the chancellor, at the first institution 
of this order the common seal was ordained to remain 
in the custody of whatsoever knight companion the king 
should please. But King Edward IV. finding it neces- 
sary to settle the office of chancellor of the Garter on 
a person distinct from the knights companions, yet sub- 
servient to them, in a chapter holden at Westminster, 
the 16th of his reign, ordered that the seal should be 
delivered to Eichard de Beauchamp, bishop of Salis- 
bury, during pleasure ; and not long afterwards, by 

Knighthood. Order of the Garter. 235 

letters patent, by reason that the chapel of Windsor 
was within the diocese of Salisbury, the said Richard 
de Beauchamp was ordained chancellor for life ; and it 
was further ordained that, after his decease, his succes- 
sors, bishops of Salisbury, should always have and hold 
the said office of chancellor. 

King Edward VI., however, in the 7th year of his 
reign, ordained that this high office should not be 
executed by an ecclesiastic, but by a knight of known 
extraction, sufficient abilities, and of honour untainted ; 
whereupon Sir William Cecil, then principal secretary 
of state, was made chancellor of the Garter; and so 
this office continued, until King Charles I., by the 
unanimous consent of the knights companions, declared 
that the bishop of Salisbury and his successors should 
for ever have and execute the office of chancellor of 
the Garter, and should succeed thereto immediately 
upon the first vacancy : from which period the bishops 
of this see have continued to preside as chancellors, till 
recently, when, by a rearrangement of the dioceses, 
Windsor was transferred to the see of Oxford, and 
consequently the bishop of Oxford is now chancellor 
of the order of the Garter. 

The office of registrar was constituted at the first 
institution. What the first registrar's name was, or 
who were his successors to the reign of Henry V., are not 
known ; but from the reign of Henry Y. to that of 
Henry VIII. they were canons of Windsor. The first 
dean of Windsor constituted registrar was John Vesey, 
in the 8th of Henry VIII. ; and at a chapter holden at 
Whitehall, llth Charles I., that prince was pleased to 
declare that the office of the dean and registrar should 
be united in one and the same person. For the greater 

236 Degrees of Nobility. 

honour and splendour of this most noble order, King 
Henry V., with the advice and consent of the knights 
companions, instituted the office of Garter King-of-arms, 
and was pleased to appoint him the principal officer 
within the office of arms, and chief of all the servants 
of arms. 

The services enjoined by him relating to the order 
were at first performed by Windsor Herald-at-arms, an 
officer created with that title by Edward III. much 
about the time of the institution of this order. 

The first person created Garter was Sir William 
Brugges, who in the institution of his office is called 
" Jartier Eoy d'Armes d'Anglois ;" but his title other- 
wise runs " Dictus Gartier Eex Armorum." John 
Smart was successor to Brugges, and had this office 
given him by patent under the title of " Eex Armorum 
de Garteria ;" and John Wry the was styled " Principalis 
Heraldus et Officiarius inditi ordinis Garterii Armorum 
Kex Anglicorum." But Sir Gilbert Dethic, leaving out 
" Heraldus," joined " Principalis " with " Eex," and so 
it has since continued "Principalis Eex Armorum" 
(Principal King-of-arms). 

There was assigned by Queen Elizabeth a badge of 
gold, to be daily worn by the King-of-arms and his 
successors on his breast, in a gold chain or riband, and 
thereon enamelled the sovereign's arms with an imperial 
crown, and both surrounded with a princely garter ; but 
Sir Edward Walker, when Garter, obtained leave to 
impale therein St. George's arms with those of the 

The office of Usher of the Black Eod was likewise 
instituted by the founder, and was granted by him to 
William Whitehorse, Esq., for life, and was then termed 

Knighthood. Order of the Garter. 237 

"Officium Hostiarii Capellae Eegis infra Castrum de 
Windsore." In the 3rd of Henry IV. this office is 
called " Officium Virgarii comitivae de la Garter infra 
Castrum Eegis de Windesore." 

In the next patent to John Athelbrigg, 1st Henry V., 
it is altered to " Officium Virgarii sive Osirarii, &c. 
And afterwards "Officium Virgse Bajuli coram Eege 
ad Festum Sancti Georgii infra Castrum Eegis de 
Windesore ;" and ever since it has passed in patent by 
the name of " Virgae Bajulus Virgarius," or " Niger 
Virgifer." But in the constitutions of the office he has 
the title given him of Hostiarius, and is also there 
required to be a gentleman of name and arms ; and if 
not a knight at his entrance into office, he is to be 
knighted by the sovereign. 

As Garter was declared the principal officer of arms, 
this officer was appointed chief usher in the kingdom, 
and so called Gentleman Usher of the Black Eod. 

In a chapter holden at Whitehall, 13th Charles II., 
this office was fixed to one of the gentlemen ushers 
daily waiters at court, the eldest of whom is properly 
called Gentleman Daily Waiter and Black Eod. His 
employment in general, besides what relates to the 
order of the Garter, is attendance in the House of 
Lords, and also among the officers of the court. In the 
8th of Elizabeth there was assigned him a gold badge, 
to be openly worn in a gold chain or riband on his 
breast, composed of one of the knots in the collar of the 
garter which tie the roses together and encompass the 
garter on both sides. 

The first elected by King Edward into the most 
noble order of the Garter was Edward, his eldest son, 
surnamed the Black Prince ; and the rest of his accom- 

238 Degrees of Nobility. 

plished companions were these that follow, and who are 
thus placed in their stalls : 

1. The Sovereign, King Edward III. 

2. Edward, Prince of Wales. 

3. Henry, Duke of Lancaster. 

4. Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of "Warwick. 

5. Piers, Captain de Beuch. 

6. Ralph Stafford, Earl of Stafford. 

7. William Montacute, Earl of Salisbury. 

8. Roger Mortimer, Earl of March. 

9. Sir John Lisle. 

10. Sir Bartholomew Burghersh. 

1 1. Sir John Beauchamp. 

12. Sir John Mohun. 

13. Sir Hugh Courtenay. 

14. Sir Thomas Holland. 

15. Sir John Grey. 

16. Sir Richard Fitz-Simon. 

17. Sir Miles Stapleton. 

18. Sir Thomas Wall. 

19. Sir Hugh Wrotesley. 

20. Sir Nele Lorin. 

21. Sir John Chandos. 

22. Sir James Audley. 

23. Sir Otho Holland. 

24. Sir Henry Earn. 

25. Sir Sane Daubrichcourt. 

26. Sir Walter Pavely. 

From this account, it appears that the persons who 
were distinguished by this honour were not all of the 
nobility ; but at the present day this high and most 
honourable badge of distinction is generally bestowed 
on members of the peerage. 

In their stalls they are placed according to their 
seniority, and not according to their dignities and titles 
of honour : hence a knight bachelor in former days has 

Knighthood. Order of the Garter. 239 

taken precedency of a duke, as Sir Henry Lee, knt., 
had precedency of the Duke of Lennox, in the time of 
James I. 

By a chapter holden 3rd of June, 1786, a new statute 
was ordained, that the order should consist of the sove- 
reign and twenty-five knights companions, exclusive of 
the sons of his Majesty or his successors, who had been, 
or might be, elected knights thereof. 

Edward III. connected with the order a number of 
poor or alms-knights, men of rank and merit, who had 
not the means of living nobly ; an institution which is 
still continued, the members of which were long known 
under the title of Poor Knights of Windsor. They are 
now called Military and Naval Knights of Windsor. 

The habit and insignia of the order of the Garter are, 
garter, surcoat, mantle, hood, George, collar, cap, and 
feathers. The GARTER, of dark-blue velvet edged with 
gold, bearing the motto, "HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE," in 
letters of gold, with buckle and pendant of richly-chased 
gold, is worn on the left leg below the knee. PI. xxi., 
n. 3. The MANTLE is of blue velvet lined with taffeta ; 
on the left breast is embroidered the STAR. PI. xxi., n. 4. 
The SURCOAT, or kirtle, is of crimson velvet lined with 
white taffeta. The hood affixed to the mantle is also of 
crimson velvet. The HAT is of black velvet lined with 
white taffeta, and adorned with a large plume of white 
ostrich feathers, with a tuft of black heron's feathers 
in the centre, affixed to the hat by a band of diamonds. 
The COLLAR is of gold, composed of twenty-six pieces 
(in allusion to the number of knights), each in the form 
of a garter, enamelled blue, with the rnotto. PI. xxi., 
n. 1. To which is appended the BADGE, or figure of St. 
George on horseback PI. xxi., n. 2. The JEWEL (PI. xxi., 

240 Degrees of Nobility. 

n. 5) is worn in common, pendent to a broad dark-blue 
riband, over the left shoulder. 


KNIGHTS OF THE BATH, so called from part of the 
ceremony at their creation, were commonly made at the 
coronation of a king or queen, or at the creation of a 
prince or duke of the blood royal. 

In the reign of Henry IV. there was a degree of 
knighthood specified under the express appellation of 
Knights of the Bath. That king, on the day of his 
coronation, in the Tower of London, conferred the 
honour on forty-six esquires, who had watched all the 
night before, and had bathed themselves. Mr. Selden 
thinks this order more ancient than the time of Henry 
IY. ; and Mr. Ashmole is of opinion that the said king 
did not constitute, but rather that he restored, the 
ancient manner of making knights, for formerly knights 
bachelors were created by ecclesiastics with the like 
ceremonies ; which, however, were by King Henry IV. 
made peculiar to the degree of knights of the Bath. 

After the coronation of Charles II., who created 
sixty-eight knights, the order was neglected till the year 
1725, when George I. was pleased to revive and re- 
organise it, to consist of the sovereign, grand-master, 
and thirty-six companions. That king allowed the 
chapel of King Henry VII. to be the chapel of the 
order, and directed that each knight's banner, with 
plates of his arms and style, should be placed over the 
several stalls, in like manner as over those of the 
knights of the Garter in St. George's chapel, at Wind- 
sor ; and he allowed them supporters to their arms. His 
Royal Highness Prince William, second son to the 

Knighthood. Order of the Bath. 241 

Prince of Wales, on this occasion was made the first 
knight companion ; his Grace the Duke of Montague, 
grand-master; and the dean of Westminster (for the 
time being) dean of the order. The other officers are, 
Bath King-of-arms, a registrar, who is also secretary, 
a gentleman-usher of the scarlet rod, and a messenger. 
The office of genealogist has been recently abolished. 

Several alterations have since been made. In Janu- 
ary, 1815, it was ordained that " for the purpose of 
commemorating the auspicious termination of the long 
and arduous contests in which this empire had been 
engaged," the order should be composed of three classes. 

The FIRST CLASS to consist of not exceeding seventy- 
two knights grand crosses, exclusive of the sovereign 
and princes of the blood. They are distinguished by 
the letters G.C.B. after their names. 

titled to the distinctive appellation of knighthood, and to 
have the same rights and privileges as knights bachelors, 
taking precedence of them ; they wear the BADGE pen- 
dent by a red riband, instead of collar, round the neck 
(PI. XXL, n. 2), and the star embroidered on the left side. 
PL xxi., n. 4. Those persons only are eligible either to 
this or the first class who are not below the rank of 
major-general in the army, or rear-admiral in the navy, 
excepting twelve of the number, who may be appointed 
for civil or diplomatic services. 

precedence of esquires, but are not entitled to the appel- 
lation of knights bachelors. The BADGE (PL xxi., n. 2) is 
worn pendent by a narrow red riband to the button-hole. 

The BADGE is commonly pendent by a ring to a broad 
red riband over the right shoulder, hanging on the left 


242 Degrees of Nobility. 

side ; but on particular occasions it is worn pendent to 
the collar. PI. xxi., n. 1 and 2. The SURCOATS are of red 
taffeta, lined with white, and girt with a white kirtle. 
The MANTLE is also the same as the surcoat, with the 
star (PL XXL, n. 3) on the left breast. Motto, " TRIA 



Is fancifully stated to have been instituted by king 
Achaius on the occasion of a bright cross, similar to that 
on which the patron, St. Andrew, suffered martyrdom, 
appearing in the heavens to him and Hurgus, king of 
the Picts, on the night previous to the battle gained by 
them over Athelstan, king of England. The date is 
not known of its origin, but it was revived in 1540, by 
James V. of Scotland ; again by James II. of England, 
in 1679 ; and subsequently by Queen Anne and King 
George I. ; since which it has been several times re- 
organised. The order consisted of the sovereign and 
twelve knights until the reign of King George IV., who, 
by royal warrant at his coronation, increased the 
number of knights to sixteen. The COLLAR has thistles 
and sprigs of rue and gold enamelled (PI. xxn., n. 1), to 
which is appended the BADGE, n. 2. The STAR is 
worn on the left side (n. 3) ; and the JEWEL is pendent 
to a green riband over the left shoulder, tied under 
the arm, (n. 4.) Motto, " NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSET." 
The officers of this order are the dean, a secretary, an 
usher of the green rod, and the Lord Lyon king-of-arms. 


Was instituted by King George III., Feb. 5, 1783, and 
consists of the sovereign, grand-master, a prince of the 

Knighthood. Hanoverian Guelpliic Order. 243 

blood royal, and fifteen knights ; the lord lieutenant of 
Ireland, pro tempore, being grand-master. 

The officers of the order are, the Lord Primate the 
Archbishop of Armagh, prelate; the Archbishop of 
Dublin, chancellor ; the Dean of St. Patrick, registrar ; 
a secretary ; a genealogist ; an usher of the black rod ; 
and Ulster king-of-arms. 

The COLLAR is of pure gold, composed of six harps 
and five roses alternately joined together by twelve 
knots ; in the centre is a crown, and pendent thereto 
by a harp is the BADGE. PI. xxn., n. 1 and 2. The 
STAR is of silver embroidery, upon a circular centre or, 
a cross saltire gu., surmounted by a shamrock slipped 
ppr., each leaf charged with a crown or, within a circular 
fillet of gold, with the motto," QUIS SEPARABIT." PL xxn., 
n. 3. The JEWEL is likewise worn pendent from a light 
blue riband scarfwise over the right shoulder, n. 4. 


Was founded by his majesty George IV., when Prince 
Eegent, in 1815, in commemoration of the raising of 
Hanover into a kingdom, and for rewarding those 
persons who had performed any signal service to their 
king and country. Until his royal highness the Duke 
of Cumberland became King of Hanover, this decoration 
was at the disposal of the sovereign of Great Britain : 
it is now wholly Hanoverian, under the control of the 
King of Hanover. The order is composed of three 
classes, into which civil and military men are admitted, 
viz., grand crosses, commanders, and knights. The 
BADGES of the military grand crosses, military com- 
manders, and military knights, only differ in size 
according to their class. PI. xxm.,.n. 2. 

244 Degrees of Nobility. 

The BADGES of the civil grand crosses, commanders, 
and knights are also alike, only differing in size, 
having a crown upon the upper limb of the cross 
(without the swords), by which it is suspended, and a 
wreath of oak-leaves instead of laurels. It is worn on 
grand occasions suspended from the collar (n. 1) ; but 
on ordinary occasions it is worn pendent from a sky- 
blue riband scarfwise. Commanders suspend it by a 
sky-blue riband worn round the neck, and knights by a 
riband and gold buckle from the button-hole. 

The STAR worn by the military grand crosses is of 
eight points, &c., with the motto, " NEC ASPERA TERRENT," 
n. 3. That worn by the civil grand crosses only differs 
in the omission of the swords, and a wreath of oak- 
leaves being substituted for laurel. 

The star of the civil commanders differs from the 
last. See PI. xxui., n. 4. 

That of the military commanders is the same, with 
the addition of the swords, and changing the oak into 


Was also instituted by his majesty George IV., in 
1818, in commemoration of the united states of the 
Ionian Islands being placed under his sovereign pro- 

The order is composed of three classes, and consists 
of the sovereign, a grand-master, a first and principal 
knight grand cross, eight grand crosses, twelve knights 
commanders, and twenty-four knights, exclusive of 
British subjects holding high and confidential employ in 
the service of the united states of Malta. 

Knighthood. Star of India. 245 

The COLLAR and BADGE (PI. xxm., n. 1 and 2) are 
worn round the neck on grand occasions ; but ordinarily 
the badge is worn pendent from a red riband with blue 

The STAB worn by the knights grand crosses is of 
exquisite taste, and can only be understood by reference 
to PL xxiii., n. 3. That worn by the knights com- 
manders is of a similar description, but of less beauty. 

PI. XXIII., fig. 4. Motto, " AUSPICIUM MELIORIS ^}VI." 

This order was instituted by her present Majesty, 
23rd of February, 1861. It consists of the sovereign, a 
grand-master (the governor-general of India for the 
time being), and twenty-five knights, together with 
such extra or honorary knights as the crown shall from 
time to time appoint. The statutes provide that it 
shall be competent for the sovereign to confer the 
dignity of knight of the order upon such princes and 
chiefs of India as shall entitle themselves to her 
Majesty's favour, and on such of her Majesty's British 
subjects as shall render important and loyal services to 
the Indian Empire. The STAR, to be worn on the left 
breast, is formed of wavy rays of gold issuing from 
the centre, having thereon a star of five points in 
diamonds, encircled by a light-blue enamelled riband 
(on which the points rest) tied at the ends, and in- 
scribed with the motto, " HEAVEN'S LIGHT OUR GUIDE," 
also in diamonds. (Vide Frontispiece.) 

The COLLAR is composed of the united red and white 
historic roses of England, and the lotus flower of 
India, between them two palm branches tied together 
in saltire, and in the centre an imperial crown all of gold, 

246 Degrees of Nobility. 

richly enamelled in their proper colours, and connected 
by a double chain of gold. 

The BADGE worn as a pendent to the collar, or to the 
riband when the collar is not worn, consists of an onyx 
cameo of her Majesty's head in profile, set in a perforated 
and ornamented oval containing the motto of the order, 
surmounted by a star of five points all in diamonds. 

The riband is of pale blue, with a white stripe 
towards each edge. 


This degree of knighthood is of very ancient date. It 
was conferred in England as early as the reign of 
Edward I., and bestowed on persons distinguished for 
their gallantry by the king (or his general, which was 
very rare), at the head of his army, drawn up in 
battalia, after a victory, under the royal standard dis- 
played, attended by all the field-officers and nobility of 
the court then in the army. 

Knights-bannerets took place before the younger 
sons of all viscounts and barons, and also preceded 
baronets, and w r ere allowed to bear their arms with 
supporters, which is denied to all others under the 
degree of a baron, unless they be knights grand crosses 
of any of the established orders. 

In the year 1773, at a review of the royal navy at 
Portsmouth, his majesty George III. conferred this 
honourable title on several flag-onicers, viz., Admirals 
Pye and Sprye, and on Captains Knight, Bickerton, 
and Vernon. But this was not according to the original 
institution, viz., " by the king in person, at the head of 
his army, under the royal banner displayed, on occasion 
of some glorious victory." 

Knights Bachelors. 247 


This honour was formerly in very high esteem ; but 
the original institution being perverted, it is now con- 
ferred indiscriminately upon gownsmen, burghers, 
physicians, and others, by the sovereign's lightly 
touching the person, who is then kneeling, on the right 
shoulder with a drawn sword, and saying, "Eise, Sir 
*," mentioning the Christian name. 

Originally the qualifications for it were such, that 
no trader could be created, nor any one of a servile 
condition. It was then requisite that he should be 
brave, expert, well-behaved, and of good morals. A 
candidate for knighthood being approved of, he pre- 
sented himself in the church, confessed his sins, had 
absolution given him ; he heard mass, watched his 
arms all night, placed his sword on the altar, which 
was returned by the priest, who gave him his benedic- 
tion; the sacrament was administered to him, and, 
having bathed, he was dressed in rich robes, and his 
spurs and sword put on. He then appeared before his 
chief, who dubbed him a knight, after the same manner, 
in fact, as the knights bachelors are at this time made. 
The whole ceremony then concluded with feasting and 

Knighthood is not hereditary, but acquired. It dees 
not come into the world with a man, like nobility ; nor 
can it be revoked. It was anciently the custom to 
knight every man of rank and fortune, that he might 
be qualified to give challenges, to fight in the lists, and 
to perform feats of arms. The sons of kings, and kings 
themselves, with all other sovereigns, in former days 
had knighthood conferred on them as a mark of honour. 

248 Degrees of Nobility. 

They were usually knighted at their baptism, or mar- 
riage, at their coronation, or before battle.* 


A title of honour above a gentleman and below a 
knight. This appellation, termed in Latin armiger, or 
scutarius, served anciently to denote such as were 
bearers of arms, or carried the shield ; and was accord- 
ingly considered as a title of office only, until the 
reign of Richard II. ; though little mention is made of 
this, or the addition of gentleman, in ancient deeds, till 
the time of Henry V., when, by a statute in the first 
year of that monarch, it was enacted, that in all cases 
where process of outlawry lay, the additions of the 
estate, degree, or profession of the defendant should be 

This statute having made it necessary to ascertain 
who was entitled to this degree, it was laid down as a 
general rule, that there were seven sorts of esquires; 
viz. : 

1st. Esquires of the king's body, limited to the 
number of four ; who kept the door of the king's bed- 
chamber, when he pleased to go to bed, walked at a 
coronation, and had precedence of all knights' younger 
sons. They are now disused. 

2dly. The eldest sons of knights, and their eldest 
sons successively. 

* No British subject is allowed to wear the insignia of any 
foreign order, without first obtaining her Majesty's permis- 
sion; and no licence or permission subsequent to March, 1813, to 
wear the insignia of those orders in England, authorises the 
assumption of any style, appellation, rank, precedence, privilege, 
&c., appertaining to a knight bachelor of the United Kingdom. 

Esquire. 249 

3dly. The eldest sons of the youngest sons of barons, 
and others of the greater nobility. 

4thly. Such as the sovereign invests with collars of 
SS, as the kings -at-arms, heralds, &c., or shall grant 
silver or white spurs to ; the eldest sons of those last- 
mentioned may also bear the title. 

Sthly. Esquires to the knights of the Bath, being 
their attendants on their installation ; these must bear 
coat-armour, according to the law of arms, are esquires 
for life, and also their eldest sons, and have the same 
privileges as the esquires of the king's body. 

Gthly. Sheriffs of counties and justices of peace 
(with this distinction, that a sheriff, in regard to the 
dignity of the office, is an esquire for life, but a justice 
of the peace only so long as he continues in the com- 
mission), and all those who bear special office in the 
royal household, as gentlemen of the privy chamber, 
carvers, sewers, cup-bearers, pensioners, serjeants-at- 
arms, and all that have any near or especial depend- 
ence on the royal person, and are not knighted ; also 
captains in the wars, recorded in the official lists. 

7thly. Counsellors at law; bachelors of divinity, 
law, and physic ; mayors of towns are reputed esquires, 
or equal to esquires (though not really so) ; also the 
pennon-bearer to the sovereign, who carries the flag OP 
banner, whereon the royal arms, either at war or at a 
funeral, are painted. 

Besides, this degree of esquire is a special privilege 
to any of the king's ordinary and nearest attendants ; 
for be his birth gentle or base, if he serve in the place 
of an esquire, he is an esquire by that service ; for it 
is the place that dignifies the person, and not the 
person the place : so if any gentleman or esquire shall 

250 Degrees of Nobility. 

take upon him the place of a yeoman of the king's 
guard, he immediately loses all his titles of honour, 
and is no more than a yeoman. 

There is a general opinion, that every gentleman of 
landed property, that has 300Z. a year, is an esquire; 
which is a vulgar error, for no money or landed property 
will give a man properly this title, unless he come 
within one of the above rules. 


Gentlemen, Generosus, seems to be compounded of 
two words, the one French, (Gentil), honestus vel honesta 
parente natus ; the other Saxon (man), as if one said, a 
man well born. Under this name are comprised all that 
are above yeoman and artificers ; so that nobles may 
with strict propriety be called gentlemen. But by the 
custom of England, nobility is either major, or minor. 
Major contains all titles and degrees from knighthood 
upwards : minor, all from knights downwards. 

Gentlemen have their beginning either of blood, as 
being born of worshipful parents, or from having 
achieved, in peace or war, some honourable action, 
whereby they have acquired the right to bear arms. 
But in these days whoever studies the laws of the 
realm, or professes a liberal science, or who can live 
without manual labour, is commonly taken for a gentle- 
man : and a king-at-arms may grant him a patent for a 
new coat, if there is none that of right appertains to 
him from his ancestors. 

If a gentleman be bound apprentice to a merchant or 
other trade, he does not thereby lose his degree of gen- 
tility ; but if a man be a gentleman by office only, and 
loses his office, in that case he also loses his gentility. 

Gentleman. 251 

By the statute 5 Eliz. cap. 4, entitled "An Act 
touching orders for artificers, labourers, servants of 
husbandry, and apprentices," amongst other things it is 
declared, " that a gentleman born," &c., " shall not be 
compelled to serve in husbandry." And in time still 
more ancient, the gentry of England had many advan- 
tages and privileges above the vulgar : 

1. Pro honor e sustinendo ; if a churle or peasant 
detracted from the honour of a gentleman, he had a 
remedy in law, actione injuriarum ; but if one gentle- 
man defamed another, the combat was anciently 

2. In equal crimes a gentleman was punishable with 
'more favour than the churle, provided the crime were 
not heresy, treason, or excessive contumacy. 

3. With many observances and ceremonial respects 
a gentleman was honoured by the churle or ungentle. 

4. In giving evidence, the testimony of a gentleman 
was deemed more authentic than a clown's. 

5. In election of magistrates and officers by vote, 
the suffrage of a gentleman took place of an ignoble 

6. A gentleman was excused from base services 
impositions, and duties, both real and personal. 

7. A gentleman condemned to death was not to be 
hanged, but beheaded, and his examination taken 
without torture. 

8. To take down the coat-armour of any gentleman, 
to deface his monument, or offer violence to any ensign 
of a deceased noble, was deemed an insult to the person 
of the dead, and punishment was due accordingly. 

9. A clown might not challenge a gentleman to 
combat, quia conditiones impares. 

252 Degrees of Nobility. 

For the protection and defence of this civil dignity 
there were three laws : the first, jus agnitionis, the right 
or law of descent for the kindred of the father's side : 
the second, jus stirpis, for the family in general : the 
third, jus gentilitatis, a law for the descent in noble 
families ; by which law a gentleman of blood and coat- 
armour only was privileged. 

To make perfection in blood, a lineal descent from 
Atavus, Proavus, Avus, and Pater (the great-grand- 
father's father, the great-grandfather, the grandfather, 
and the father), on the father's side, was required ; and 
as much on the mother's side ; then was a gentleman 
not only of perfect blood, but of ancestry also. 

Anciently, none were admitted into the inns of court 
but such as were gentlemen of blood ; nor were the 
church dignities and preferments bestowed indifferently 
among the vulgar. The Eussians, and some other 
nations, admit none to the study of the law but gentle- 
men's younger sons. The decayed families in France 
are supported and receive new life from the court, 
camp, law, and ecclesiastical preferments, by which 
means their church and state are in esteem and reve- 
rence, being filled most commonly with the best blood 
and noblest by birth amongst them. 

The achievement of a gentleman has no difference 
from that of an esquire, both their helmets being close 
and sideways. 


Yeomen are so called of the Saxon word zemen, which 
signifies common, and are properly such as have some 
lands of their own to live upon ; for a earn of land, or 
a plough-land, was in ancient time of the yearly value 
of five nobles, and this was the qualification of a soke- 

Yeomen. 253 

man or yeoman. In our law they are called legates 
homines, a word familiar in writs and inquests. 

It appears from Lambarde's Perambulation of Kent, 
p. 367, that the Saxon word telphioneman was given to 
the theyne or gentleman, because his life was valued 
at one thousand two hundred shillings (in those days the 
lives of all men were rated at certain sums of money) ; 
while the term twyJiind was applied to the churle or 
yeoman, because the price of his head was taxed at two 
hundred shillings. Which facts may be found in the 
etymology of the words themselves, the one called a 
telphioneman, or twelve-hundred man, and the other a 
twyhind, or a man of two hundred. " And in this 
estate they pleased themselves, insomuch that a man 
might (as he even now may) find sundry yeomen, 
though otherwise comparable for wealth with many of 
the gentle sort, that will not yet for that change their 
condition, nor desire to be apparelled with the title of 

As in ancient times the senators of Eome were elected 
a censu ; and as with us, in conferring nobility, respect 
is had to revenue, by which dignity and nobility may 
be supported and maintained; so the wisdom of this 
realm hath of ancient time provided, that none shall 
pass upon juries for the trial of any matter real or 
personal, or upon any criminal cause, but such as, 
besides their movables, have lands for estate of life, 
at the least to a competent value : lest from need 
or poverty such jurors might be corrupted or suborned. 

And in all cases the law has conceived a better 
opinion of those that have lands and tenements, or 
otherwise are of worth in movable goods, than it has 
of artificers, retailers, labourers, or the like. 

254 Degrees of Nobility. 

By tlie statute of 2 Hen. IV. cap. 27, amongst other 
things it is enacted, " That no yeoman should take or 
wear any livery of any lord upon pain of imprisonment, 
and to make fine at the king's will and pleasure." 

As the nobility, gentry, and clergy, have certain 
privileges peculiar to themselves, so have the common- 
alty of England beyond the subjects of other monarchs. 
No freeman of England can be imprisoned, ousted of 
his possession, or disseised of his freehold, without 
order of law, and just cause shown. 

To him that is imprisoned may not be denied a 
lidbeas corpus, if it be desired ; and if no just cause be 
alleged, and the same be not returned upon a habeas 
corpus, the prisoner is to be set at liberty. By Magna 
Charta, 9 Hen. III., no soldier can be quartered in any 
house except inns, and other public victualling-houses, 
in time of peace, without the owner's consent. By the 
petition of rights, 3 Car. I., no taxes, loans, or benevo- 
lences, can be imposed but by act of parliament. 

The yeomanry are not to be pressed to serve as 
soldiers in the wars, unless bound by tenure, which as 
now abolished ; nor are the train-bands compellable to 
march out of the kingdom, or be transported beyond 
sea : nor is any one compelled to bear his own arms, if 
he find a sufficient man as his substitute, qualified 
according to the act before-mentioned ; and no freeman 
is to be tried but by his equals, nor condemned but by 
the laws of the laud. 

The yeomen of England were famous in our fore- 
fathers' days for archery and manhood : our infantry, 
which so often conquered the French, and repulsed 
the Scots, were composed of them, as are our militia at 

Precedency. 255 

PERSONS of every degree of honour or dignity take 
place according to the seniority of their creation, and 
not of years, unless descended of the blood royal, in 
which case they have place of all of the same degree not 
of the blood royal. 

The younger sons of the preceding rank take place 
of the eldest sons of the next degree, viz. the younger 
sons of dukes of the eldest sons of earls ; the younger 
sons of earls of the eldest sons of barons, &c. 

There have been some alterations made as to prece- 
dency, whereby all the sons of viscounts and barons are 
allowed to precede baronets. And the eldest sons and 
daughters of baronets have place given them before the 
eldest sons and daughters of any knights, of what 
degree or order soever, though superior to that of a 
baronet (these being but temporary dignities, whereas 
that of baronet is hereditary) ; and the younger sons of 
baronets are to have place next after the eldest sons of 

As, also, there are some great officers of state who 
take place (although they are not noblemen) above the 
nobility of higher degree ; so there are some persons 
who, for their dignities in the church, degrees in the 
universities and inns of court, offices in the state or 
army (although they are neither knights nor gentlemen 
born), yet they take place amongst them. Thus all 
colonels and field- officers (who are honourable), as also 
master of the artillery, and quarter-master-general; 
doctors of divinity, law, physic, and music ; deans, 

256 Precedency. 

chancellors, prebendaries, heads of colleges in the uni- 
versities, and serjeants-at-law^ are, by courtesy, allowed 
place before ordinary esquires. And all bachelors of 
divinity, law, physic and music ; masters of arts, barris- 
ters in the inns of courts ; lieutenant-colonels, majors, 
captains, and other commissioned military officers ; 
and divers patent officers in the king's household may 
equal, if not precede, gentlemen who have none of these 

In towns corporate, the inhabitants of cities (and 
herein those of the capital or metropolitan city are the 
first ranked) are preferred to those of boroughs, and 
those who have borne magistracy to all others. And 
here a younger alderman or bailey takes not precedency 
from his senior by being knighted, or as being the elder 
knight, as was the case of Alderman Craven, who 
(though no knight) had place, as senior alderman, before 
all the rest who were knights, at the coronation of 
King James. This is to be understood as to public 
meetings relative to the town ; for it is doubted whether 
it will hold good in any neutral place. It has also been 
determined in the Heralds' Office, that all who have 
been lords mayor of London shall everywhere take 
place of all knights-bachelors, because they have been 
the king's lieutenants. 

It was likewise adjudged in the case of Sir John 
Crook, serjeant-at-law, by the judges in court, that such 
Serjeants as were his seniors, though not knighted, should 
have preference, notwithstanding his knighthood. 

All colonels, says Guillim, are honourable, and by 
the law of arms ought to precede simple knights. 

Women before marriage have precedency by their 
father ; but there is this difference between them and 

Precedency. 257 

the male children, that the same precedency is due to 
all the daughters that is due to the eldest, whereas it 
is not so among the sons. 

By marriage a woman participates in her husband's 
dignities ; but none of the wife's dignities can come by 
marriage to her husband, but are to descend to her next 

If a woman have precedency by creation, descent, or 
birth, she retains the same, though she marries an in- 
ferior. But it is observable, that if a woman nobly 
born marry any nobleman, as a baron, she shall take place 
according to the degree of her husband, though she be 
a duke's daughter. 

A woman privileged by marriage with one of noble 
degree, shall retain the privilege due to her by her hus- 
band, though he should be degraded by forfeiture, &c. ; 
for crimes are personal. 

The wife of the eldest son of any degree takes place 
of the daughters of the same degree (who always have 
place immediately after the wives of such eldest sons) ; 
and both of them take place of the younger sons of the 
preceding degree. Thus the lady of the eldest son of 
an earl takes place of an earl's daughter, and both of 
them precede the wife of the younger son of a marquis ; 
also, the wife of any degree precedes the wife of the 
eldest son of the preceding degree. Thus the wife of a 
marquis precedes the wife of the eldest son of a duke. 
This holds not only in comparing degrees, but also 
families of the same degree among themselves ; for 
instance, the daughter of a senior earl yields pluce to 
the wife of a junior earl's son ; though if such daughter 
be an heiress, she will then be allowed place before the 
wives of the eldest sons of all younger earls. 


of ^recctrencg among 

THE KING, or the Consort of the reigning Queen.* 

The Prince of Wales. 

King's or Queen-regnant's other sons. 




Brothers' or sisters' sons. 


Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Lord High Chancellor, or Lord Keeper. 

Archbishop of York. 

Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of Ireland. 

Archbishop of Dublin. 

J Lord High Treasurer. 

| Lord President of the Privy Council. 

J Lord Privy Seal. 

J Lord Great Chamberlain. 

Lord High Constable. 

Earl Marshal. 

Lord High Admiral. 

Lord Steward of the Household. 

Lord Chamberlain of the Household. 

Dukes according to their patents. 
Eldest sons of Dukes of the Blood Koyal. 
Marquises according to their patents. 

The eldest sons of Dukes. 

Earls according to their patents. 

The younger sons of Dukes of the Blood Royal. 

The eldest sons of Marquises. 

* By the official Gazette, under date 20th March, 1840, it was 
ordered that H. R. H. Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, 
consort of her Majesty, should take rank next the Queen. 

f Leopold, King of the Belgians, by special statute. 

J Being of the degree of Barons, by stat. 31 Hen. VIII. 

Above all of their degree, viz., Dukes to precede Dukes, 
Earls above Earls, &c. Stat. 31 Hen. VIII. 

Table of Precedency. 259 

The younger sons of Dukes. 
Viscounts according to their patents. 

The eldest sons of Earls. 

The younger sons of Marquises. 

Bishop of London. 

Bishop of Durham. 

Bishop of Winchester. 

An other Bishops according to seniority of consecration. 

* Barons according to their patents. 

Speaker of the House of Commons. 

Commissioners of the Great Seal. 

The Treasurer of the Household. 

The Comptroller of the Household. 

Master of the Horse. 
The Vice Chamberlain. 

Secretary of State, being under the degree of Baron. 

The eldest sons of Viscounts. 

The younger sons of Earls. 

The eldest sons of Barons. 

Knights of the Garter (if not nobles^ 

Privy Councillors (ditto}. 

* Any peer, being principal secretary of state, shall take prece- 
dence of all other peers of his degree. But the priority of signing 
treaties, or instruments, by public ministers, is always enjoyed 
by rank of place, and not by title. 

It was confirmed by stat. 5 Anne, chap. 8, That all peers of 
Scotland shall be peers of Great Britain, and have rank next after 
the peers of the same degree in England, at the date of the 
union, May 1, 1707. By Act 39 & 40 Geo. III. cap. 67, it is 
enacted, That the lords of Parliament on the part of Ireland shall 
have the same privileges as the lords of Great Britain ; and all the 
lords spiritual of Ireland shall rank next after the lords spiritual 
of Great Britain, and shall enjoy the same privileges, except that 
of sitting in the House of Lords. The temporal peers of Ireland 
have rank next after the peers of the same rank in Great Britain 
created before the union. All peerages of Ireland and Great 
Britain created since the union have rank according to creation, 
and are considered in all respects as peerages of the United King- 
dom, and enjoy the same privileges, excepting those peers of 
Ireland who have not sittings in the House of Lords. 

f Knights of the Thistle and of St. Patrick have no precedence, 
under the statutes of their orders, and would be placed according 
to their rank irrespective of their knighthood. 

260 Table of Precedency. 

Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

Chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. 

Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench. 

Master of the Bolls. 

Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. 
Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. 

Vice- Chancellor. 
Judges and Barons of the degree of the Coif of the said Courts 

according to seniority, and 

Judges of the Court of Keview. 

Commissioners of the Court of Bankruptcy. 

Bannerets made under the Royal banner, in open war, and the 

King or Prince of Wales personally present. 

The younger sons of Viscounts. 

The youngers sons of Barons. 

Baronets according to their patents. 

Bannerets not made by the King himself in person. 

Knights Grand Crosses of the Bath. 
Knights Grand Crosses of St. Michael and St. George. 

Knights Commanders of the Bath. 
Knights Commanders of St. Michael and St. George. 

Knights Bachelors. 

Companions of the Bath. 

Companions of St. Michael and St. George. 

Eldest sons of the younger sons of Peers. 

The eldest sons of Baronets. 

The eldest sons of Bannerets. 

The eldest sons of Knights of the Garter. 

The eldest sons of Knights Bachelors. 

The younger sons of Baronets. 

Esquires by creation. 

Esquires by office. 
Gentlemen entitled to bear arms. 

Clergymen, Barristers at Law, Officers in the Navy and Army, 
who are Gentlemen by profession. 


of ^rmittncg among JKKomen. 

THE QUEEN (Regnant or Consort, as the case may be). 
The Queen Dowager. 

Princess of Wales. 

Princesses, daughters of the Bang or Queen Regnant. 
Princesses and Duchesses, wives of the King's or Queen 

Regnant's younger sons. 

King's or Queen Regnant's granddaughters. 

Wives of the King's or Queen Regnant's grandsons. 

King's sisters. 
Wives of the King's or Queen Regnant's brothers. 

The King's aunts 

Wives of the King's uncles. 

Daughters of the King's or Queen Regnant's brothers' or 

sisters' sons. 
Wives of the King's nephews. 


Wives of the eldest sons of Dukes. 
Daughters of Dukes. 

Wives of the eldest sons of Marquises. 

Daughters of Marquises. 
Wives of the younger sons of Dukes. 

Wives of the younger sons of Marquises. 

, Wives of the eldest sons of Viscounts. 

Daughters of Viscounts. 
Wives of the younger sons of Earls. 
Wives of the eldest sons of Barons. 

Daughters of Barons. 

Wives of Knights of the Garter. 

Wives of Bannerets made ty the King in person. 

Wives of the younger sons of Viscounts. 

Wives of the younger sons of Barons. 


Table of Precedency. 

Wives of Baronets. 
Wives of Bannerets not made by the King in person. 

Wives of Knights Grand Crosses of the Bath. 
Wives of Knights Grand Crosses of St. Michael and St. George. 

Wives of Knights Commanders of the Bath. 
Wives of Knights Commanders of St. Michael and St. George. 

Wives of Knights Bachelors. 

Wives of Companions of the Bath. 

Wives of Companions of St. Michael and St. George. 

Wives of the eldest sons of the younger sons of Peers. 

Daughters of the younger sons of Peers. 

Wives of the eldest sons of Baronets. 

Daughters of Baronets. 
Wives of the eldest sons of Knights of the Garter. 

Wives of the eldest sons of Bannerets. 
Wives of the eldest sons of Knights Bachelors. 

Daughters of Knights Bachelors. 

Wives of the younger sons of Baronets. 

Wives of Esquires. 

Wives of Gentlemen. 

Wives of Clergymen, Barristers at Law, and Officers in the 
Navy and Army. 


CStoat <2Mcers of State, anfc of 


THE power and influence of the lord high steward, 
anciently the first great officer of state, were in former 
times so exorbitant, that after the elevation of Henry 
of Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster, to the throne, when 
the office came into the hands of the crown, it was not 
thought prudent to intrust it again in the person of a 
subject. Since that time, therefore, there has not been 
any lord high steward in England, except to officiate pro 
tempore at a coronation, or for the arraignment of a peer 
or peeress for a capital crime. 


Formerly the second, now the first, great officer of the 
crown, is the lord high chancellor, or keeper of the 
great seal, which are the same in authority, power, and 
precedence. They are appointed by the sovereign's 
delivery of the great seal to them, and by taking the 
oath of office. They differ only in this point that the 
lord chancellor has also letters patent, whereas the 
lord keeper has none. He is an officer of very great 
power, no patents, writs, or grants being valid, until he 
affixes the great seal thereto. 

Among the many great prerogatives of his office, he 
has a power to judge according to equity, conscience, 


Great Officers of State, 

and reason, where lie finds the law of the land defec- 
tive : to collate to all ecclesiastical benefices rated 
under 20/. a year : and to perform all matters which 
appertain to the speaker of the House of Lords. 

In ancient times this great office was most usually 
filled by an ecclesiastic. The first upon record after 
the Conquest is Maurice, in 1067, who was afterwards 
bishop of London. 

There is no instance of the elevation of any chan- 
cellor to the peerage until the year 1603, when King 
James I. delivered a new great seal to Sir Thomas 
Egerton, and soon after created him baron of Elles- 
mere, and constituted him lord high chancellor of 
England. But until of late years the custom never 
prevailed, that the lord high chancellor of England 
should be made an hereditary peer of the realm. 


This was anciently the third great office of the crown, 
It was then conferred by the delivery of the golden 
keys of the treasury : but it is now executed by five 
persons, who are called lords commissioners for exe- 
cuting the office of lord high treasurer, viz., one who 
is called the first lord of the treasury, and four others, 
who are styled lords of the treasury only, of whom 
one is also denominated chancellor and under-trea- 
surer of the exchequer, although not unfrequently 
the offices of first lord of the treasury, and of chan- 
cellor of the exchequer have been united in the same 

and Royal Household. 265 


Formerly the fourth now the third great officer of 
state is appointed by the crown by letters patent under 
the great seal, durante bene platito (during pleasure). 
His duty is to attend the royal person, and to manage 
the debates in council ; to propose matters from the 
sovereign at the council-table, and to report the resolu- 
tions taken thereon. 


The lord privy-seal is a place of great trust, honour, 
and antiquity. In the time of Edward III., and long 
after, this officer was called keeper of the privy-seal (or 
private seal) to distinguish him from the other, called 
keeper of the great seal. He is appointed now by 
letters patent, is a privy councillor by his office, and 
takes place next after the president of the council. 
He is now the fourth great officer of state, and has 
the custody of the privy-seal, which he must not put 
to any grant without good warrant under the royal 
signet. This seal is used by the sovereign to all 
charters, grants, and pardons, before they come to 
the great seal ; but may also be affixed to other things 
that never pass the great seal ; as, to cancel a recogniz- 
ance to the crown, or to discharge a debt. 


This high office was for many successions enjoyed by 
the noble family of De Vere, earls of Oxford (having 
been granted to them by Henry I.), until the death of 
Henry de Yere, the eighteenth earl, without issue ; when 

266 Great Officers of State, 

Mary, sister and heir of Edward, father of the said 
Henry, having married Peregrine Bertie, Lord Wil- 
loughby of Eresby, was mother by him of Eobert Lord 
Willoughby of Eresby, who made claim to the earldom 
of Oxford, as also to the office of lord great chamber- 
lain of England ; whereupon, after much dispute, the 
House of Lords gave judgment that he had made good 
his claim to the office but not to the earldom (which 
was decided in favour of the heir-male collateral) ; and 
he was accordingly on the 22nd of November, the 2nd 
of Charles I., admitted into the House of Lords with 
his staff ; and his descendants continued to enjoy the 
same until the death of Eobert Bertie, fourth duke of 
Ancaster, marquis and earl of Lindsey, Lord Wil- 
loughby of Eresby, and lord great chamberlain of 
England, in 1779 ; who dying unmarried, was suc- 
ceeded in the dukedom, marquisate, and earldom, by 
his uncle, Lord Brownlow Bertie ; but the barony of 
Willoughby fell into abeyance; and for the great 
chamberlainship there were several candidates, viz. the 
Lord Brownlow Bertie, then duke of Ancaster ; earl 
Percy, eldest son of the duke of Northumberland ; the 
duchess dowager of Athol, baroness Strange, of Knockyn, 
and the ladies Priscilla Barbara, and Georgiana Char- 
lotte Bertie, sisters and co-heirs of Eobert, fourth duke 
of Ancaster, deceased ; when, after hearing all parties 
in support of their respective pretensions, the House 
of Peers desired the opinion of the twelve judges, who 
gave it as their opinions, that the office devolved to the 
ladies Priscilla Barbara, and Georgiana Charlotte Bertie, 
as heirs to their brother the aforesaid duke Eobert, de- 
ceased ; and that they had powers to appoint a deputy to 
act for them, not under the degree of a knight, who, if his 

and Royal Household. 267 

Majesty approved of him, might officiate accordingly ; 
and agreeably to this opinion, the House gave judg- 
ment. Whereupon, Peter Burrell, Esq., husband of the 
said Lady Priscilla Barbara, was appointed, and received 
the honour of knighthood from his Majesty; after 
which appointment he was created lord Gwydir. 

To this officer belong very many perquisites, privi- 
leges, &c., in lieu of which he usually on a coronation 
receives a sum of money. 

When the king or queen goes to parliament, he dis- 
poses of the sword of state to be carried by what lord 
he pleases, at which time he goes himself before on the 
right hand of the sword, next the king or queen's per- 
son, and the earl marshal on the left. 

Upon all solemn occasions the keys of Westminster 
Hall,* the court of wards, and the court of requests, are 
delivered to him ; and the gentleman-usher of the black 
rod, yeoman-usher, and the door-keepers, are then under 
his command. 

To him also belongs the fitting up of Westminster 
Hall for a coronation, the trial of a peer, or any public 

He has likewise certain fees from every archbishop 
or bishop, when they do homage or fealty to the 
crown : and from all peers on their creation, or doing 
homage or fealty. 

* By the search made by the Lord Chamberlain in the cellars 
under the Parliament-house, Guy Vaux (or Faux) was discovered 
and taken. 

268 Great Officers of State, 


This office was for many ages held by grand serjeantry. 
The lord high constable and the earl marshal were 
formerly judges of the court of chivalry, called, in the 
time of Henry IV., curia militaris, and after, the court 
of honour. The power of the high constable was so 
great, and so improper a use was oftentimes made of it, 
that, so early as the 13th of Eichard II., a statute was 
passed for regulating and abridging the same, together 
with the power of the earl marshal. The office went 
with inheritance, and by the tenure of the manors of 
Harlefield, Newman, and Whitenhurst, in the county 
of Gloucester,* in the family of the Bohuns, earls of 
Hereford, Essex, and Northampton, and passed from 
the Bohuns upon the death of Humphrey, the last earl, 
to Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester; and 
from him to the issue of Edmund, earl of Stafford, 
whose son, Humphrey Stafford, was created duke of 
Buckingham, with whose great-grandson, Edward 
Stafford, duke of Buckingham, beheaded by Henry 
VIII. on Tower Hill, this office terminated. It has 
never since been granted to any person, otherwise than 
pro tempore for a coronation, or trial by combat.f 

* The castle of Caldecot, near Chepstow, in the county of Mon- 
mouth, was the residence of the lord high constables of England, 
and holden by them in virtue thereof. 

f The only instance that occurs of a trial by combat being 
ordered since the cessation of the office of lord high constable, is 
between Lord Keay and David Eamsay, Esq., 28th November, 
1631 : the king prevented this trial. On this occasion, Kobert 
Bertie, earl of Lindsey, was appointed lord high constable. 

and Eoyal Household. 269 


This office is of great antiquity, and is not said to 
have been holden by tenure or serjeantry, as the offices 
of lord steward and high constable were. 

Yet, in the time of Henry I., Sir William Dugdale 
recites, that Kobert de Venvis, and William de Hastings, 
impleaded Gilbert Mareschall, and John his son, for 
the office of mareschal* to the king, but without 
success ; which John in the 10th of Henry II., being 
the king's marshal, upon the difference between that 
king and Thomas a Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, 
laid claim for the king to one of the archbishop's 
manors, which had been long enjoyed by his predeces- 
sors. Unto John, son of this said John, King Henry II. 
confirmed his office of marshal ; and as such, at the 
coronation of Eichard I., he bore the great gilt spurs, 
and afterwards died without issue. William Mareschallf 
earl of Pembroke, was his brother and heir, whose five 
sons successively earls of Pembroke, dying without 
issue male, his five daughters became his heirs; of 
whom Maude, the eldest, married Hugh Bigod, earl of 
Norfolk, whose son, Roger Bigod, earl of Norfolk, after 
frequent solicitations, obtained the office and honour 
of marshal, in right of his mother, the 32nd of 
Henry III. ; when the king solemnly gave the marshal's 

* According to Camden, this office of mareschal appears to 
mean the office of marshal of the king's house ; an office distinct 
from that afterwards known by the name of earl marshal of 

t These earls of Pembroke were oftentimes called also mare- 
schals, according to Matthew Paris, and other historians ; but it 
does not appear that any one had this title by creation till the 
time of Kichard II., who conferred it on Thomas Mowbray, earl 
of Nottingham. 


Great Officers of State, 

rod into her hands, in regard of her seniority in 
the inheritance of the Mareschalls, earls of Pembroke, 
which she thereupon delivered to Earl Eoger, her son, 
whose homage the king received for the same ; but he 
dying without issue, the inheritance devolved upon 
Eoger, his nephew and heir, who, in the 30th of 
Edward I., having no issue, constituted the king his 
heir, delivered unto him the marshal's rod, upon con- 
dition to be rendered back in case of having children, 
and other certain terms; and, after dying without 
issue, the office thereby fell into the King's hands. 
Afterwards, King Edward II. granted the same unto 
Thomas de Brotherton, his brother. Brotherton died, 
leaving Margery, his daughter and heir, countess of 
Norfolk, during whose life King Edward III. and 
Eichard II. disposed of this office to divers others; 
sometimes for life, sometimes during pleasure : until at 
last, king Eichard II. gave it by patent to Thomas 
Mowbray, earl of Nottingham, who was the grandchild 
of the said Margaret, who was then created earl 
marshal, being the first time that the title of earl was 
affixed to the office of marshal; at the same time he 
had power given that he and his successors in the 
office should bear in their hands a gold truncheon, 
enamelled with black at each end; at the upper end 
having the king's arms engraven thereon, and at the 
lower end his own arms. But, by reason of the judg- 
ment given against Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, not long 
before the 21st of Eichard II., this honour and office 
were forfeited during his life. His posterity, however, 
had them restored; which they held till the 15th of 
Edward IV., when the issue male failed, and the 
honour, of course, expired. But Eichard III. revived 

and Eoyal Household. 271 

it in Sir John Howard, son of Sir Eobert Howard, who 
had married Margaret, one of the daughters and co-heirs 
of the aforesaid Thomas Mowbray, earl marshal and duke 
of Norfolk ; whom he also created duke of Norfolk, and 
who, adhering to his master and benefactor, was slain with 
him at Bosworth field. By an attainder in parliament, the 
honour and office were again forfeited, and granted to 
William Berkely, earl of Nottingham, in tail, who de- 
ceasing soon after, issueless, Henry VIII. gave the same 
for life to Henry, earl of Surrey, afterwards duke of 
Norfolk, and his issue male, whence for many years it was 
held for life only. King James I., at his coronation, 
granted it to the earl of Worcester for that occasion, 
and at other times it was executed by commission. 
But at length King James I. was pleased, by letters 
patent, dated 29th August, 1622, to constitute Thomas 
Howard, earl of Arundel, earl marshal for life ; and 
the next year (with the advice of the privy council) 
granted letters patent, wherein it was declared that, 
during the vacancy of the office of lord high constable 
of England, the earl marshal had the like jurisdiction 
in the court of chivalry, as both constable and marshal 
jointly ever possessed. And on the 19th of October, 
1672, King Charles II. was pleased to grant to Henry 
lord Howard, and the heirs male of his body lawfully 
begotten (with a long entail to divers others of the 
Howard family), the office and dignity of earl marshal 
of England, with power to execute the same by deputy 
or deputies, in as full and ample a manner as the same 
was heretofore executed by Henry Howard, late earl of 
Arundel, grandfather to the said Henry lord Howard, 
or by Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk ; or by John 
Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, or any other earl marshal 

272 Great Officers of State, 

of England, with an allowance of 20Z. each year, 
payable out of the hanaper offices. 

The College of Arms, commonly called the Heralds' 
College, is situate on the east side of St. Bennet's Hill, 
Doctors' Commons, at the south-west end of St. Paul's 
Churchyard. It was destroyed by the dreadful fire in 
1666, but rebuilt about three years after. It is a 
spacious brick edifice, having an arched gateway in 
front, leading into a handsome quadrangle. The 
society was incorporated by Richard III., and consists 
of thirteen members; viz. three kings-of-arms, six 
heralds, and four pursuivants, all nominated by the 
earl marshal, and holding their places by patent during 
good behaviour. 

The kings-of-arms are styled respectively Garter, 
Clarenceux, and Norroy. 

Garter king-of-arms, was instituted as before men- 
tioned (see Knights of the Garter, ante, p. 235,) by 
King Henry V., and made sovereign of all the other 
officers of arms in England. To him belongs the 
correction of arms, and ensigns of arms, usurped or 
borne unjustly ; and the power under warrant of the 
earl marshal, of granting arms to deserving persons, 
and supporters to the nobility and knights grand 
crosses of the Bath. 

It is the office also of Garter king-of-arms to go next 
before the sword in solemn processions, none inter- 
posing except the marshal; when any lord enters the 
parliament chamber, it is his part to assign him his 
place, according to his dignity and degree; to carry 
the ensign of the order to foreign princes, and to do, or 
procure to be done, what the sovereign shall enjoin, 
relating to the order. 

and Roijal Household. 273 

Clarenceux and Norroy are the provincial kings-of- 
arms; the jurisdiction of the former comprehending 
all England to the south of the river Trent, and that of 
Norroy all to the north of that river. 

Clarenceux is thus named from the Duke of Clarence, 
the third son of King Edward III. 

Norroy, signifying North Roy, or North King. 

The six Heralds are Windsor, Chester, Lancaster, 
York, Richmond, and Somerset. They are esquires by 
virtue of their office. 

The four Pursuivants are denominated respectively 
Rouge-croix, Blue-mantle, Rouge-dragon, and Portcullis. 

The Earl Marshal has a secretary who receives fees 
upon warrants, but is not ex officio a member of the 
corporation. There is also a registrar, who is not 
necessarily an officer of arms, though the appointment 
has generally been held by one. 

It is the duty of the Heralds and Pursuivants to 
attend in the Public Office, one of each class together, 
in monthly rotation. The general duties of the Kings, 
Heralds, and Pursuivants are to attend the sovereign 
on all state occasions. To publish certain royal pro- 
clamations, marshal all the royal solemnities of coro- 
nations, marriages, christenings, funerals, &c. 

To grant coats armorial and supporters to the same, 
to such as are properly authorised to bear them ; and, 
where no hereditary arms are known to belong to the 
person applying for a grant, they design a coat, cres/i, 
&c., taking care that it shall not in any way interfere 
with those already allowed or recorded. 

Besides the Heralds' College at London, there is the 
Lord Lyon king-of-arms for Scotland, who is second 
king-of-arms for Great Britain; and also Ulster king- 

27-1 Great Officers of State, 

of-arms for Ireland. The officers under the former are 
the Lyon depute, the Lyon clerk and Keeper of the 
Eecords and his deputy, the Fiscal, the Mercer, six 
Heralds Eothesay, Marchmont, Islay, Albany, Snow- 
don, Ross, and six Pursuivants Dingwall, Bute, 
Carrick, Ormond, Kintyre, and Unicorn. In Ulster's 
office there are two Heralds, Cork and Dublin, four 
Pursuivants, one only bearing a distinctive title, viz., 
Athlone, and a registrar. 


The ninth great officer of state is the lord high 
admiral. He has the management of all maritime affairs, 
and the power of decision in all maritime cases, civil and 
criminal. By him all naval officers, from an admiral 
to a lieutenant, are commissioned; all deputies for 
particular coasts, and judges for his court of admiralty 
are appointed. 

After the union with Scotland, Prince George of 
Denmark was the first lord high admiral of Great 
Britain. He died, 29th of October, 1708, and Queen 
Anne acted by secretary Burchet, until November 29, 
1708, when Thomas, Earl of Pembroke, was appointed 
to the office, with a fee of three hundred marks per 
annum ; and he seems to have been the last person in- 
trusted with this high post (which since his time has been 
constantly in commission), until the reign of George IV., 
when his late Majesty, William IV., then Duke of 
Clarence, was constituted lord high admiral, which he 
held during the administration of the late Mr. Canning. 


The principal secretaries of state have been, by virtue 
of their office, members of the privy council ever since 

and Royal Household. 275 

the reign of Queen Elizabeth; whereas, before, they 
only prepared business for the council board. Until 
towards the end of the reign of Henry VIII. there was 
but one secretary of state, when his Majesty thought 
fit to increase the number to two, both of equal rank 
and authority. Since then, the multiplicity of public 
affairs rendered necessary the addition of a third secre- 
tary, and during the present reign two more have 
been added, viz., secretary for war and secretary for 
India. These five secretaries divide among them the 
management of all foreign and domestic affairs, with 
powers of the most extensive and comprehensive 


This noble and honourable assembly is a court of 
great antiquity, composed of the most eminent persons in 
the kingdom, to advise the sovereigns upon all emer- 
gencies; and upon their wisdom, vigilance, courage, 
and integrity, depend in a great measure the honour 
and prosperity of the nation. By their advice the 
crown issues proclamations, and declarations for war 
and peace. All the peerage are hereditary privy coun- 
cillors ; but of their number the sovereign has a select 
council, commonly called the cabinet council, and 
consisting of certain great officers of state (who by 
virtue of their office are members of it), by whom are 
determined such affairs as are most important and 
require secrecy. 


The chief officer for the civil government of the king's 
or queen's court is the lord steward of the household. 


Great Officers of State, 

His authority is very great, and extends over many 
other officers. He has the sole direction of the house- 
hold below stairs ; is always a member of the privy 
council ; and at the meeting of every new parliament 
all the members must take the oaths by law appointed 
before the lord steward of the household, or some one 
deputed by him. He has no formal grant of his office, 
but receives his charge from the sovereign in person 
by delivery of a white staff or wand, the symbol of his 
office. In the time of Henry VIII. his title was great 
master of the king's household. But from the first of 
Mary he was called magnus seneschalus hospitii regis, 
or the lord high steward of the king's house. 


There are two officers distinguished by the name of 
chamberlain ; the one called lord great chamberlain 
(already spoken of), and the other the lord chamberlain 
of the household. 

The last has the oversight, in the royal household, 
of all the officers above stairs, except the precinct of 
the bedchamber, which is under the government of the 
groom of the stole. He has the supervision of the chap- 
lains, although he be a layman ; also of the officers of the 
standing and removing wardrobes, beds, tents, revels, 
music, comedians, &c. ; of all physicians, apothecaries, 
surgeons, messengers, trumpeters, drummers, tradesmen, 
and artisans, retained in the royal service. To him 
also belongs the oversight of the charges of coronations, 
marriages, cavalcades, funerals ; of all furniture in the 
parliament-house, and in the rooms for addresses to the 
king or queen. He carries a white staff in his hand as 
badge of his office, and wears a gold key tied with a 

and Royal Household. 277 

blue riband above his pocket. He is always a member 
of the privy council. Under him is a vice-chamberlain, 
who in his absence supplies his place. 


The third great officer of the court is reckoned the 
master of the horse, a place of honour and antiquity, 
and always filled by a nobleman of the highest rank. 
He has authority over the equerries, pages, coachmen, 
footmen, grooms, farriers, smiths, &c. ; and appoints 
all the tradesmen who work for the royal stables ; he 
has also the management and disposal of all the king's 
or queen's coaches, horses, pages, footmen, and attend- 
ants, which are used by himself, with the royal arms 
and livery ; and at any solemn cavalcade he has the 
honour to ride next the king or queen. 


This officer is first lor % d of the bedchamber, and has 
the custody of the long robe or vestment worn by the 
sovereign on solemn occasions, and called the stole. 
He wears a gold key as the emblem of his office, and is 
usually a nobleman of the highest rank. Yet there is 
one instance of the office being in the hands of a 
female, viz., Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, anno 
1702. in the reign of Queen Anne. 


He is an officer in the lord steward's department, next 
in rank to the lord steward himself. He bears a white 
staff, and is a privy councillor. 

278 Great Officers of State, 


Is the second officer under the lord high steward, and 
next to the treasurer of the household. He also bears 
a white staff, and is a privy councillor. 


He disposes of what is termed the almonry, or royal 
alms, on Maundy Thursday (the Thursday in Passion- 

The charity bestowed upon this occasion, to each 
lazar (or poor person) admitted to partake of this 
ceremony, is woollen cloth for one suit, linen for two 
shifts, six penny loaves of bread, fish in wooden 
platters, a quart bottle of wine, and two red leathern 
purses, one containing as many silver pennies as the 
king or queen is years old, the other as many shillings 
as the reign has lasted. 


The honourable band of gentlemen pensioners was 
first instituted by King Henry VIII., in 1539. It is now 
designated the honourable corps of gentlemen at arms. 
Their office is to attend the royal person upon all 
occasions of public solemnities; as at court, on coro- 
nations, St. George's feasts, public audiences of ambas- 
sadors, at the going to parliament, royal funerals, &c. 
They are properly considered as a troop of guards 
attendant on the king's or queen's person. They 
wait one-half at a time ; but on certain days and extra- 
ordinary occasions they are all obliged to attend under 
the penalty of the cheque. 

Previously to the accession of King William IV., 

and Royal Household. 279 

admission to this corps was attainable by persons of any 
class by purchase. That sovereign, however, made 
some salutary alterations, which have been still further 
improved by her present Majesty, and the corps is now 
strictly composed of gentlemen, the majority of them 
having held rank in the army. 

The officers of the corps consist of the captain 
(generally a nobleman), a lieutenant, standard-bearer, 
and a clerk of the cheque. 


These were first instituted by King Henry VII., anno 
1486, as a body-guard to him, and their number at 
that time was fifty men ; but they have since undergone 
several alterations, and their present establishment is 
100. Eight of them are styled ushers, four superan- 
nuated yeomen, six yeomen hangers, two yeomen bed- 
goers. Their officers are a captain, who is generally a 
nobleman, a lieutenant, an ensign, a clerk of the cheque, 
and four exons. 

On all occasions of great solemnities, or the sove- 
reign's going publicly in state by land or water, they 
attend. Their dress, by gradual alteration, has at 
length become a conventional costume composed of a 
coat of the fashion of the reign of William III., a hat of 
the period of Charles II., and a ruff of the time of 
James I. 







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CR Clark, Hugh 

23 An introduction to heraldry 

C53 18th ed.